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Agenda-10/30/00

Botany: The study of Plants

  1. Sit in your groups, in alphabetical order by last name (A in 1st seat, row 1).
  2. Place your homework on your desk for stamping.
  3. Question:
    1. What is a plant?
    2. How can you tell a plant from another organism?
  4. Review Homework
  5. Definition of a Plant
  6. Kingdoms of Life
  7. Groups of Plants
  8. Homework:
  1. Review Homework:
    1. What are three functions of the ground tissue system?
      1. Photosynthesis, store water and food, support vascular tissue.
    2. Name and describe the two main types of conducting cells in xylem and phloem.
      1. The vessel elements of xylem are thick-walled, tubular cells with pits in their cell walls. The sieve tube members of phloem are thin-walled, tubular cells with clusters of tiny pores in their cell walls.
    3. How does the structure of a leaf help it perform photosynthesis efficiently?
      1. Colorless epidermal cells admit the maximum amount of light, while the chlorophyll-containing cells are usually clustered near the upper leaf surface for maximum collection of light. Air spaces in the spongy layer connect inner cells to the outside air for gas exchange.
    4. How does the structure of a root enable it to anchor a plant and to absorb water?
      1. Lateral rots help anchor plants. Root hairs increase surface area for water absorption.
    5. What structural features of the sugar maple make it economically important?
      1. The hardwood of the sugar maple is very durable and has desirable grains. The phloem conducts a rich supply of sap that is collected and used for making syrup and sugar.
    6. Why might a taproot system be an advantage to some plants, while a fibrous root system is an advantage to others?
      1. Taproots offer large plants support and enable plants to reach water deep in the ground. Fibrous roots offer support in shallow soils and maximize water collecting while they hold soil and prevent erosion.
  2. Definition of a Plant
    1. Plants are complex multicellular organisms that are primarily terrestrial autotrophs. Plants mainly occur on land, and the produce their own organic molecules from inorganic materials by using photosynthesis. All plants have chlorophyll.
    2. Brain storming
      1. Herbs
      2. Mostly Green
      3. Has buds
      4. Has leaves and flowers
      5. Has seeds
      6. Has stems
      7. Has roots
      8. Has pollen
      9. Needs water
      10. Grows in soil
      11. Can not move
      12. Attacts insects
      13. Photosynthesis
      14. Grows on the ground or in water
      15. Do not eat other organisms
      16. Grows food
      17. Has cholorphyll
      18. Producers (produces basic building chemicals–starches, sugars, proteins, fats)
      19. Store water and carbohydrates (sugars)
      20. Moves air into tissue more passively
      21. Respiration
  3. Groups of Plants
    1. Nonvascular Plants
      1. Mosses (Bryophyta)
        1. Small; most have simple vascular tissue, a sporophyte consisting of a bare stalk and a spore capsule, and a dominant, "leafy" green gametophyte that lacks roots, stems, and leaves.
      2. Liverworts
        1. Simplest plants; small, having a dominant gametophyte with a flattened or "leaf" body that lacks vascular tissue, ca cuticle, stomata, roots, stems, and leaves.
      3. Hornworts
        1. Small, with a flattened, dominant gametophyte that has stomata but lacks vascular tissue, roots, stems, and leaves.
    2. Vascular Plants
      1. Horsetails (Spenophyta)
        1. Seedless, with a small, independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte consisting of roots and ribbed and jointed stems with soft needlelike leaves at the joints
      2. Ferns (Pterophyta)
        1. Seedless, with a small, independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte consisting of roots, horizontal stems, and leaves called fronds; spores are produced in clusters of sporangia on lower surfaces of leaves
      3. Conifers (Coniferophyta)
        1. Gymnosperms (seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules not enclosed by an ovary) that produce cones; mostly evergreen trees and shrubs with leaves modified as needles or scales
      4. Cycads
        1. Gymnosperms with palmlike leaves; produce male and female cones on separate plants
      5. Ginkgo
        1. Gymnosperm; deciduous tree with fanlike leaves; produces conelike male reproductive structures and uncovered seeds on separate individuals
      6. Gnetophyta
        1. Gymnosperms; diverse group of shrubs and vines
      7. Flowering Plants (Angiosperm)
        1. Angiosperms (seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules enclosed by an ovary); a very diverse group including trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs that produce flowers and fruits
      8. Whisk Ferns
        1. Seedless, with a small, independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte that is highly branched and has tiny leaves but is not differentiated into roots and stems
      9. Club Moses
        1. Seedless, with a small, independent gametophyte and a dominant, mosslike sporophyte with roots, stems, and leaves
  4. Kingdoms of Life
  5. Homework:
    1. Chp 23: pg 518-528, #1-6.
    2. Finish filling in the Plant Characteristics table:
  6. Lab: Characteristics of Plants

Purpose:

To observe and compare vascular and nonvascular plants.

Materials:

Various Plants

Procedure:

            1. Observe all displayed plants at each station.
            2. Create a table with the following heading:
            3. Record all information in your table.
            4. Does the plant, or any part of the plant, have a waxy covering?
            5. Describe and draw the flower structure at station .
            6. Using the microscope, look for openings along the leaf's surface.

Discussion (Write one paragraph for each question):

            1. Summarize the observations written in your table.
            2. Identify relationships by comparing and identifying traits which seem to be common to all plants that have roots, stems, or leaves.
            3. What traits are common to all plants living in a dry habitat?
            4. Describe those traits of a highly evolved plant, and explain why it has these traits.

 

Name: Date

Biology, Mr. Hartzog Period

Plant Characteristics

Phylum

Vascular Tissue

Roots

Seeds

Flowers

Dominant Gametophyte

Dominant Sporophyte

Liverworts

           

Mosses

           

Horsetails

           

Ferns

           

Conifers

           

Ginkgo

           

Angiosperm

           
             
             
             
             
             
             

 

 

Station

Size (cm)

Structure

Habitat

Roots, Stems, or Leaves

Flowers

Seeds

             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             

 

 

Station

Evidence of Internal Tubes

Waxy Covering on Leaves

Openings in Leaf's Surface

Division of Labor