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Today you will be using the website http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/primer/dna.swf
It was designed to teach you some of the basics of Genetics. You will be answering
the questions below on a separate piece of paper. You should consider your answers
to be a set of notes (possibly to be used on an upcoming open note quiz), so
make sure to give detailed answers. It might be a good idea to include a quick
sketch for some of the more difficult questions.
WHAT IS DNA?
- Starting with the ear canal, list the order of structures discussed, from
largest to smallest.
- What is found in the ear cell that tells it what role it will play in the
- "These molecules encode a detailed set of plans, like a blueprint,
for building different pieces of the cell." What molecules are they talking
- Genes tell the cell to make other molecules called what?
- What do the molecules in question #4 do for the cell? Give an example.
WHAT IS A GENE?
- Weíve heard genes are blueprints or sets of instructions. What exactly are
they instructions for?
- What is the name of the protein (not the cell) that transports oxygen throughout
- What causes a person to have sickle cell anemia?
- Give two more examples of proteins and their functions in our body.
WHAT IS A CHROMOSOME?
- How can we fit the equivalent of 10,000 meters of DNA into the nucleus of
- How many pairs of chromosomes are found in each human somatic cell (not
sperm or eggs)?
- Can you see chromosomes using a microscope? Can you see the double helix
structure of the DNA with a microscope?
- In the example given, do the chromosomes come from a male or female? How
do you know?
- Do all living things have the same number chromosomes?
- Is it true that the more complicated an organism is, the more pairs of chromosomes
they have? Why?/Why not?
WHAT IS INHERITANCE?
- "If we inherit our traits from our parentsí genes, then why donít
we look exactly like them?"
- How many total chromosomes does each human parent contribute to their offspring?
- What process is being demonstrated with the red and green circles each representing
the Dadís chromosomes?
- How come brothers and sisters with the same parents donít look exactly alike?
WHAT IS A PROTEIN?
- How are proteins and cells related to one another? Use an analogy please.
- One example of what proteins do is to help cells send the "pain"
signal to the brain. How do proteins do this?
- Where do you think proteins come from?
- How do cells make the proteins they need?
- What is the first step that happens in the nucleus in order to make a protein?
- What organelle "reads" the message from the nucleus and makes
the specific protein?
- What happens to the protein after it is made?
WHAT IS MITOSIS/MEIOSIS?
- About how many cells are in your body?
- How many cells did you start off as?
- Why is it necessary for cells to do mitosis?
- What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
- What is the difference between haploid and diploid cells?
- Why would we need haploid cells?
- What is a zygote?
- How many chromosomes does a human diploid cell have?
- What has to happen for the zygote to become a child?