Organic Chemistry

Projects

Properties of Water

Solutions

Buffers

Organic Chemistry Facts

Elements
Organic Groups
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic Acids

Organic Chemistry Sites

Protein Structure and Function. Univ. Wisco.
Carbohydrate Structure and Function. Texas A&M University.
Lipid Structure and Function. Texas A&M University.
Nucleic Acid Structure. Univ. Wisco.
Atoms, Molecules, Water, pH. Clermont College.
pH Regulation During Excercise. Washington Univ.

References:

Biology, 5th ed.. Campbell, Reece, and Mitchell . Benjamin/Cummings, Publ. 2001.

Chemistry and The Living Organism. Bloomfield, Molly M. John Wiley & Sons. 1977.


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Organic Molecules


Organic Groups:

As they form organic molecules, elements are commonly arranged in organic groups. There are six common organic groups that for smaller units of organic molecules. These are methyl, hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfydrl, and phosphate groups. By combing these groups in particular arrangements, common organic molecules are formed.

Naturally Occurring Elements in the Human Body

Organic Group

Formula

Compounds

Methyl

—CH3 and —CH2

proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, etc.

Hydroxyl

—OH

alcohol

Carboxyl

—COOH and —COO

proteins, lipids

Amino

—NH2

proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids

Sulfydrl

—SH

some amino acids, Thiols

Phosphate

—PO4

organic phosphates like ATP, DNA, RNA

Adapted from Cummings et al. Table 4.1, Biology. 2001.

Organic Molecules

There are four basic groups of organic molecules: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids. These molecules are made by bonding different organic groups to each other in differing orders.

All organic molecules contains methyl groups, and most contain hydroxyl groups. For example, you can describe the basic amino acid, the molecule that makes proteins, as a molecule that contains a methyl group, an amine group, and a carboxyl group, plus one R-group that varies from amino acid to amino acid. Carbohydrates have 3-6 methyl groups, with about the same number of hydroxyl groups, and maybe containing a carboxyl group. Lipids are strings of methyl groups, with one carboxyl group at one end. Nucleic Acids have alternating methyl and amine groups.