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Biomes F2001

 

Writer:

Presenter:

Artist 1:

Artist 2:

2. Choose roles:

       

1st Period

 

Joseph

Justin

Sam

St. Lunatics

Ashley Mooring

Kure Cohen

Christina Kahlil

Christina Kahlil

 

Silvia Sanchez

Mason Newt

   

Lil Rascals

Jermaine Marshall

Diana Lu

Cherry Mendoza

Tyrone Corely

 

David Liang

Maurice Hightower

Nicholas Barnum

Mina Pan

 

May Kuang

David Ross

Jenny Lam

Michael Vo

Dont Know

Jeremy Hui

Peter Tran

Louie Lau

Jeremy Hui

KVYN

Nancy Nguyen

Kenny Wong

 

Ursula Choice

 

Christina Wagner

Andre Fenley

Johnny Li

Nancy Gallegos

 

Stacey Davis

Shardae Calloway

Joseph Chiang

Lanishia Thomas

 

Justin King

Aaron Lagasca

Alfredo Hurtado

James Craver

Double LTX

Jacky Lao

Bich Ha Tran

Angel Xie

Yan Jun Lu

SP

Jessica Ramos

Rowena Kumar

Diana Merino

Crystal Romero

 

Lori Cheng

Dennis Lim

Adaysha Patton

All

TRFIC

Peter Yee

Reggie Moore

Jeffrey Cheng

Robert Tang

Just Because

Laren Bell

Naeemah Hunt

Brandon Williams

Erica Bozman

Foshow

Derell Young

John Bombita

Peixian Yu

Jing Chen

M

Calvin Yao

Jeff Huang

Johnson Chen

Hanson Tom

 

Jing Liang

David Nguyen

Danny Yu

David Bituin

Unrestricted

Helen Tran

Diana Uriarte

Wardah Asaba

Sweetie Mortenson

 

 

Oceans

The oceans are all already the world and the largest of all the ecosystems. Oceans are very large bodies of water that dominant the Earth's surface. The ocean is over with salt water all over and its region is like water world. The ocean is just like ponds and lakes, the ocean are separated into separate zones. First they have the: intertidal, pelagic, abyssal, and benthic. All of the four zones have much different kind of species. The ocean has many species even the land doesn't have. The intertidal zone is where the ocean meet the land.

The intertidal zone is where waves and tides come in and out. Because of the tides come in and out the communities are constantly changing. Also in the intertidal zone many people use this zone to have fun. People go surfing and people swim on water also people drive there boat around to have fun. Next we have the pelagic zone. The pelagic zone is much further from the land. The pelagic zone is cold but though is hard to give a general temperature, because that the pelagic zone is mixed with cold and warm water. The benthic zone of course is below the pelagic zone. But although the benthic zone is not the very deepest parts of the ocean. The bottom of the zone consists of sand, slit, and/ or dead organisms. The deepest and the last part of the ocean we have the abyssal zone. The water in this zone is extremely cold. The abyssal zone is around 3 c. it has highly pressured, high in oxygen content, but low in nutritional content. The abyssal zones is the mid-ocean ridges spreading zones between tectonic plates. The chemosynthetic bacteria thrive near these vents because of the large amounts of hydrogen sulfide and other minerals the emit. These bacteria are thus the start of the food web as invertebrates and fishes eat them.

The intertidal zone has not much species but the fauna include worms, clams, predatory crustaceans, crabs, and shorebirds. The pelagic zone has the species of is and some mammals. Which they are dolphins and whales for example. The benthic zone has all kind of bacteria like fungi, sponges, sea anemones, worms, sea stars, and fishes. The abyssal zone has many bacteria in it.

For example the shark, the shark is like the king of the ocean just like the lion the kind of the jungle. The sharks has many sharp teeth. When a sharks teeth is broken it can be replace really easily. The sharks is the top predator of the ocean, nothing in the ocean can really get the shark. A shark can ramp though bones easily so it is a very dangerous species.

The ocean takes 2/3 of the earth's surface and it still do now. It is amazing how deep the ocean can get and how cold it is. All kind of species were first came from the ocean.

Written by David Liang

Desert Presentation

     

  1. Desert Biome
    1. Location (main deserts
      1. Sahara
        1. North Africa
      2. Gobi
        1. Mongolia-China
      3. Kalahari
        1. Southern Africa
      4. Great Victoria
        1. Australia
      5. Great Sandy
        1. Australia
      6. Mojave
        1. Southwestern United States (California, Arizona, Nevada
    2. Types of Deserts
      1. Hot Deserts
          1. Precipitation
            1. Rains 120 cm or less per year
          2. Sahara Desert
          3. Kalahari Desert
          4. Great Victoria Desert
          5. Great Sandy Desert
      2. Cold Desert
          1. Precipitation
            1. Snows 120 cm or less per year
          2. Gobi Desert
    3. Mammals
      1. Fennec Fox
        1. Lives in burrows
        2. Goes out at night
        3. Carnivores
        4. Preys on small rodents, birds, insects and lizards
      2. Dorcas Gazelle
        1. Could live without water for a long time
        2. Lives in dry African grassland
        3. Primary active at dawn dusk and throughout the night
      3. Great jerboa
        1. Eats seeds and insects when they are walking around.
        2. Nocturnal.
        3. Spends the day in burrows.
        4. They also hibernate in burrows.
    4. Insects
      1. Scorpions
        1. Lives in warm and dry tropical regions
        2. Insects and sometimes-small lizards.
      2. Centipede
        1. Eats small insects
        2. Lives under rocks
      3. Arizona Blister Beetle
        1. Eats plant tissue from desert shrubs.
    5. Birds
      1. Road Runner
        1. Belongs to the Cuckoo family
        2. Eats small snakes, insects, lizards, and, occasionally, the young of ground-nesting birds
      2. Gila Woodpecker
        1. Live in desert scrubs
        2. They nest in the Saguaro Cactus.
        3. They eat insects, ants, fruit, and some small lizards.
      3. Harris' Hawk
        1. Lives in desert scrubs
        2. Nest in the arms of the Saguaro Cactus
        3. Eats rodents and reptiles.
    6. Plants
      1. Mesquite
        1. Trees root goes 40 feet or more deep
        2. Flowers develop string bean-like pods rich in sugar
      2. Prickly Pear Cactus
        1. Large flowers appear in late spring
        2. Juicy reddish fruits grow on it
      3. Ocotillo Scrub
        1. Covered with showy scarlet flowers after a spring rainy spell.

 

Presented by Diana Lu

Deciduous Forest

The name of our biome is Deciduous Forest. The major Deciduous Forests are in the Northern Hemisphere and they are in North America, Europe, and Asia. The smaller ones are in the Southern Hemisphere.

Inside the Deciduous Forests they are many flowers, but they do not have much vegetation they have more trees then anything. They weather is mostly precipitation in the Deciduous Forests. The animals have to deal with the cold winters and the hot summers. Tress leaves fall off so the small animals don't have a place to hide themselves. Animals found in the Deciduous Forests found are Black bear, Brown Bear, Fox, Cardinals, Turkey, Scorpions, earthworms and many other animals and creature. They have Mushrooms which grows on the Forest floors. The kingdom Protista is Lichen which is half Protista and half fungi.

The average temperature of the Forest is 24C and gets a high as 30C depending on it's location. The average amount of rainfall is 76 to 152 cm per year.

The Deciduous Forest is one of the biggest forests in the world. The forest is basically a big green place that shelters animals and plants, and trees. It is always wet until the summer comes. The main tree there is the Maple Tree. The birds use the trees for their homes. The trees there grow thick bark so they can survive cold weathers. Other animals use the trees for shelter form the sun's heat. When people come to cut down the trees the take away the animals homes. The trees come crashing down and smashes the growing seeds and prevents them form growing. That could make the population of the plant eating animals decrease. The Forest grows mostly during the wet season.

Deciduous is very fertile soil land. The reason the deciduous soils so fertile is because it's enriched with leaf liter. Leaf liter is leaves, twigs, logs, and dead organisms that fall on the ground.

Insects, Spiders, Snails are common creatures that live in the Deciduous Forest, and many Cold-blooded vertebrates, such as snails, frogs, etc... are also common there. There many birds the like the woodpeckers, warbles, flycatcher, and many others. They live in the trees for homes and to hide for protection from predators. The bird predators are the Owl and the Hawk. Mammals in the forest consist of mice moles, bears, rabbits, and many other mammals. There are many carnivores in the forest. Living in nature is a major factor in whether an animal will survive or not. When the people cut down the trees they are destroying the animals shelters and food. It has even extended to even destroying a species.

Written by Ashley Mooring

Deciduous Forest Presentation

  1. Location
    1. Deciduous Forest is found in eastern part of North America, western Europe, eastern Asia, Canada, parts of Russia, China, Japan, South America, Australia, and Africa.
  2. Weather
    1. The Deciduous Forest is in cool rainy areas. The average temperature of Deciduous Forest is 24C and gets as high as 30C depending on where the forest is located. The closer the forest is to the equator, the hotter the forest is. The Deciduous Forest is warm in the summer and cold in the winter. Deciduous Forest gets 61- 152cm of precipitation (rain, snow, and snow) each year.
  3. Seasons
    1. Deciduous Forest has 4 distinctive seasons: spring, fall, summer, and winter. In the Deciduous Forest it rains in the fall and spring, snows in the winter, and is sunny in the summer. Deciduous means change colors and that's exactly what the leaves do. In the fall the leaves change colors, then the leaves fall off in the winter, and grows back in the spring. This adaptation helps the forest survive through winter because the leaves fall off and photosynthesis shuts down and starts back up in the spring. The reason the leaves change colors in the fall is because day decreases and the deciduous (plants and trees) stop producing chlorophyll (something green that converts sunlight to chemical energy) that makes the plants loose their leaves.
  4. Land
    1. Deciduous Forest is very fertile soil land. The reason the deciduous soil is fertile is because it's enriched with leaf liter. Leaf liter is leaves, twigs, logs, and dead organisms that fall on the ground. Deciduous land is made up of forests, flat land, and some hills.
  5. Trees
    1. In the Deciduous forest there are lots of hard wood trees. The trees are put into 5 layers from the tallest trees to the smallest trees. The 5th layer is tree stratum. Tree stratum is 23- 51m. Tree stratum has large oak, maple, beech, chestnut, hickory, elm, basswood, linden, walnut, and sweet gum trees. The 4th layer is the sapling layer. Sapling layer is 6- 11m. Sapling layer is small trees and young trees. The 3rd layer is shrub layer. Shrub layer is 30- 240cm. Shrub layer is shrubs like rhododendrons, azaleas, mountain laurels, and huckleberries. The 2nd layer is herb layer. The herb layer is the very short plants. The 1st layer is the ground layer. The ground layer is lichens, club mosses, and true mosses.
  6. Plants
    1. In the Deciduous there are not many plants or much vegetation. The only plants are the ones that grows on the trees. There are an outrageous number of plants on trees. The plants that are in the deciduous forest loose their leaves in the winter also. In the spring plants grow new leaves from capturing energy from the sun. The sun is in the sky for longer periods of time making more energy.
  7. Animals
    1. In the Deciduous Forest precipitation falls all though the year. During the winter months the forest is usually frozen and less able for animals to drink. Animals living in Deciduous Forest must be able to adjust to cold winters by hibernating, migrating, or keeping active all winter. Leaves fall off trees in the winter, leaving animals with less hiding places from predators. Some animals that are in Deciduous are vertebrates, birds and mammals. The vertebrates are snails, slugs, insects, and spiders. Cold-blooded vertebrates are snakes, frogs, salamanders, and turtles. Some of the birds are warblers, flycatchers, thrushes, woodpeckers, hawks, and owls. Some of the mammals include mice, moles, chipmunks, rabbits, weasels, foxes, bears, deer, otters, pandas, lions, puma, porcupines, canes, beavers, hedgehog, raccoons, opossum, squirrels, and moose's.
  8. Organisms
    1. In the Deciduous Forest there is the Kingdom Fungi. The Kingdom Fungi are mushrooms. The mushrooms are found growing on the forest floor. In the Deciduous Forest there is also the Kingdom Protista. The Kingdom Protista is lichen. Lichen is half Protista and half fungi. The parts help each other live and survive. The two parts lichen cannot survive alone and depend on each other to exist. The lichens survive with the help of fungus. The fungus gives the alga water and minerals. The alga carries out photosynthesis giving the fungus a source of organic minerals.
  9. How Humans Affect Deciduous Forests
    1. There is a regular destruction of the Deciduous Forest. People cut logs off the trees. Cutting logs off the trees (also called logging) takes away lots of the forest trees and kills a lot of bird's homes. One of the birds logging affected was the Spotted Oil. Pollution and littering also kills animals in the forest. People think the forest is an easy place to put garbage and get away with it with no harm done. Polluting and littering does do harm to animals. They can get poisoned or trapped in the garbage. Also people cut down the land to build hotels, highways, apartments, or business buildings.
  10. The Water Cycle
    1. The Water Cycle starts out by the precipitation. The clouds rain and the rain hits the forest. If the cloud snows the snow hits the ground and melts. When the rain hits the forest, half the water goes to the runoff and the other half sinks into the percolation soil. The water that goes into the runoff goes flows into a lake. The water then evaporates. The water that sinks into the percolation soil goes down into the ground water.
  11. The Carbon Cycle
    1. The Carbon Cycle starts by giving out photosynthesis. The photosynthesis makes plants. The animals eat the plants. The animal's breath and give respiration back to the carbon dioxide. The animal then dies. The decomposition of the animal gives back to the carbon dioxide. The decomposition makes fossil fuels. The fossil fuel makes gas. The gas is used by cars and makes combustion (or pollution). The combustion gives back to the carbon dioxide.
  12. The Nitrogen Cycle
    1. The Nitrogen Cycle starts out by an animal eating a plant. The dead animals and animal's waste make ammonification. The bacteria in the roots also make ammonification. ammonification is the production that urine and dead animals converts to ammonia. The ammonification then makes assimilation and nitrification. Assimilation is ammonia produced by bacteria spreads through soil by plants and animals eat the plants and use nitrogen to build molecules. The nitrification is ammonia in soil is converted to nitrate. The assimilation makes denitrification. Dentrification is bacteria converting into nitrogen gas. The gas is released into the atmosphere.

Presented by Kure Cohen

Tundra Biome

The tundra is a treeless plain of the arctic and alpine regions. There are two different kinds of tundra biomes, and they are known as the arctic and alpine tundra. The arctic tundra is found at the top of the world around the north pole and the alpine tundra is found on top of cold and tall mountains. This biome covers a fifth of the earth's surface and can be found in places such as Canada, Greenland, Russia, Northern Europe, Siberia, the northern most part of North America and a few places in the Southern Hemisphere. It is dry and cold in the tundra biome, and the vegetation is little to none. Animals that can be found in the tundra are caribou, Grey wolves, arctic foxes, polar bears, golden eagles, musk oxen, Norway lemmings, red phalaropes, ruddy turnstones, and sled dogs. Plants that can be found there are lichens, dwarf willows, and cushion plants. The average annual temperature is -12C to -6C, and the average annual rainfall is less than 25 cm.

Temperatures during the arctic winter can be -51C. The average temperature of the warmest month is between 10C and 0C. Sometimes as few as 55 days per year, they have a temperature higher than 0C. The changes in rainfall is spread evenly during the year and is slight, varying from 20-30 cm.

The most typical animals found in the tundra are caribou, Grey wolf, arctic fox and polar bear. The caribou is a type of deer that varies in color. It has short hair with different colors that can either be almost black to brown, gray, and white. A caribou can be found at Scandinavia to Siberia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland A caribou migrates many hundreds of miles in between their breeding places (hundreds of miles between their breeding ground on the tundra and winter feeding grounds found farther south). During breeding time, it produces one to two offspring.

Grass and other tundra plants are their main food in summer, but in winter it eats lichens. The Grey wolf is a canine carnivore that can be found in eastern Europe, eastern India, Russia, Canada and some of the northern United States. It lives in the high mountains of Mexico. In the tundra biome, a Grey wolf hunts and feeds on larger animals such as deer, caribou, and wild horses and they also feed on smaller animals such as mice, fish, and crabs. The Grey wolf produces 3-8 puppies in May or June. Another type of canine carnivore is the arctic fox. It can be found in the arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North America. It hunts and feeds on birds, lemmings, marine life, and any other leftover animals found in the tundra. Every May or June, it produces offspring such as the Grey wolf does, and make 4 to 11 puppies. It has furred paws, small and round ears, and white fur. The polar bear is another typical animal found in the tundra, and is a carnivore. It can be found in Arctic Oceans to southern limits of ice floes. It hunts and eat seals, fish, seabirds, arctic hares, caribou and musk oxen. During summer, the polar bear eats fresh meat, berries, and leaves of tundra plants. In a day, it can eat 41kgs per food and will still feel hungry. It mates in midsummer and produces 1 to 4 offspring. The polar bear has white fur that helps them blend into the snow, and it can smell food even though if it is 32km away.

In tundra soil, permafrost a permanently frozen layer of ground 609cm thick, is found. Tundra plants and microorganisms grow in the permafrost. The most typical plants found in the tundra are lichen, dwarf willow, and cushion plants and they can be found in the tundra. Lichen are plants that grow on the exposed surfaces of rocks. It is made of fungus and algae living and growing together. Dwarf willow are small shrubs that grow in the tundra. Cushion plants grow in a low, tight clump and looks like a little cushion to protect them from the cold. Plants in the tundra biome have many adaptations. During cold and harsh temperatures, they can be small and grow close to the ground. They even take in more heat from the sunshine than they get from other plants.

For most of the year, the tundra biome is covered in snow. During short summers, ice and snow melt to leave pools of melted water. Permafrost is frozen ail year long. If single species get eliminated or if permafrost gets disrupted, the tundra biome may get severely damaged.

In conclusion, the tundra is the coldest and driest place on earth. Animals in this biome are adapted to handle cold winters and breed and raise offspring quickly in the short and cool summers. Since annual precipitation is really low, less than 10 inches, water is unavailable during most of the year. Also, since there is so many plants in the tundra biome, animals get more food. Most animals found there are vegetarians, so animals will not have any problems finding food in the tundra biome.

Written by Joseph Laurente

Tropical Rainforest

  1. ALL ABOUT THE FOREST
    1. I found out that the tropical rain forest is found along the equator of the earth. The temperature rise from at least 25 to 35OC the average rainfalls is at least 150 to 400cm. And 139 to 406cm per year. There are so many different kind of rain forest. There are so many kind of forest there is the Industrial Forestry, The Tropical Deforestation cloud forest, Destroyed Forest and the destroyed temperate rain forest. All the world most famous forest are found in Central Africa and the Amazon watershed, and Asia. The rain forest lies about from 10ON to 10OS of the equator. The subtropical forest lies the same amount of degrees outside of the latitude. The rain forest seasonal changes almost like the monsoons of Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand and the Indonesia
  2. HUMANS DESTROYING THE FOREST & ANIMALS
    1. All around the world everyone feels that the world is just about us humans. The reason that I say this is because we never try to share the earth with plants animals otherwise or dominance will result in continue the extinction of many of these species that live in the forest. The average of species extinct everyday because there are many destroyed forest and the other reason that they are extinct is because the people use there fur and body parts to make money of mostly shoes and coasts. They have been doing it for so long that it is an over population that has been contributed to the loss of many acres of the tropical rainforest. A lot of animals have lost their homes because of this of these land destroyers.
  3. ANIMALS IN THE FOREST
    1. The animals that live in the forest is monkeys jaguars birds these three animals are ones that have a lot of family left because the animals that have all the fur and stuff are the ones that are getting killed. These animals climate is sort of cool because they have warm in the summer and cool in the winter. The precipitation m winter for these animals are 20-65cm dry in the summer. The animal that has been leaving the forest is the monkeys because for the last two seasons the monkeys has been getting killed over their fur during the winter.
  4. TEMPERATE RAINFOREST(Marine West Coast) a
    1. little bit of the seasonally temperatures is colder than tropics + 150 cm/ year precipitation. Southern Hemisphere Podocarpus (yellow wood) Nothofagus (beech) Northern Hemisphere Pinus (pine) Abies (fir) Taxus brevifolia ( pacific Yew)
  5. CONCLUSION
    1. My Conclusion is that I hope that all the reader that get the chance to read understand that its hard to live in the forest and it was hard for me to do this because I don't know any thing about this biome. The thing that I did learn that the animals have the worst life living in there the ones that get to live. Now that I know that half of these clothing's are made with animals I feel sad because that means that they don't get a chance to live I feel that animals are no different firm humans . So I feel that if you have to come out to kill animals to take care of your family then you don't have a life. My last thing that I learned was how they damage all of the forest by cutting and burning them so people loss there home. So the next time you cut a tree or a kill an animal think of who you are hurting.

Written by Patricia Nolan

The Deep Blue Ocean

The biome is call the ocean, to be specific they are call the marine. An ocean is a large body of salt water that covers 70C of the whole earth. Ocean can be find in a lot of place because it is everywhere. Some examples are the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and the Antarctic Ocean. All five oceans got their own differences. The Arctic Ocean is very near the North Pole; it is the smallest out of the 5 oceans in the whole world. The area is 14 million km. In the water, they are mostly sand, gravel, oil and gas field, iceberg, and glaciers. Antarctic Ocean is the second to the smallest. It is on the opposite side on the world which means they are near the South Pole. The Antarctic is the neighbor of Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean. Antarctic has different water than them, so that is what makes them not mix together. Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean of the whole world; it also covers 20%of the earth's surface. It is located by Southern Asia west and Arabia Peninsula and Africa. The totally area is 73,556,000 sq. km. It has a Monsoon Wind System, the wind affect the ocean's movement a lot. The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean in the world. It covers 20%of the earth's surface. The w hole Atlantic, includes two parts, it is the South acid North Atlantic Ocean, and they are separate by the equator. It is located from North and South America to Asia and Africa. So the. shape of t he ocean is like an S. The totally area of tile ocean is 106,450,000 sq. km. Last, is the Pacific Ocean. It is the largest ocean from all the five oceans. It is located Southern Asia, Australia and the Western Hemisphere. It has an area of 156 million sq. km. It is 15 times the size of the US, actually bigger than all the land combined. In the water, they have gas and oil field, sand, gravel, arid fishes. This ocean is very dangerous because volcanoes surround it, earthquakes, typhoons, hurricanes happens all the time, and a lot of pollution. Animals that live in the ocean are mostly fishes, and other sea animals. The annual rainfall of the ocean is 3.9 cm per year. The ocean is very important, because of the water and because it is the habitats for a lot of different animals and plants.

Different oceans have different environment because they are located in different part of the world. Different part of the world have different tiling happening so it affect its environment. Like I explained in the first paragraph, in the water they are mostly sand, gravel, and animals. Now we got more polluted ocean than we use to have, because people pollute the oceans more and inane some sea animals suffer. One thing is so good and special about our bionic it is the way the water cycle work. All water cycles start from an ocean, because evaporation. The suit evaporates from the ocean, or any other large body of water. That is a very important function because of the water cycle we create rain. Rains are a very important element in some really dry biomes, like the desert. The unique part about that is that we do not need water then. That is because we are already a big body of water. That make rainfall is not very important to the oceans. Water qualities depend on which ocean. However, to wrap it up, the qualities of water are mostly polluted, so you would never want to drink water that is Straight from the ocean, rainwater is the freshet so before the rain hit the ocean it is still fresh. Last but not least, one more special thing we have is out minerals. We have special salt and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide and salt are very important to the ocean. The salt in the water is very special, it is only found in the ocean. The carbon dioxide make this kind of cycle that make the pH level in the water balance, that way the animals in the water can survive.

Algae are examples of plant that is found on the ocean. Different algae have different colors. They have different color because different colors mean different types. They are marine plants and they are not microscopic so you do not need a microscope to look at it. The kelp is the biggest algae, they wan be 2.54 m long. They are brown in color. Algae are found in almost everywhere; they are found in the water level that you can still see the sunshine. That is because of all the photosynthesis, algae do also. Animals that are found in our biome are all the sea animals. Examples are like emperor angelfish and killer whales. Emperor angelfishes are very colorful, that's because they change color while they grow. There are tropical marine fishes. They are found in the Indian oceans, the Southern Pacific Ocean, and the Caribbean. They are mostly feed on smallest animals in the water, so they are the secondary predator. In addition, they live in reef's line a lot of other marine life too. Killer whales are the largest in vie whale family. The male can grow up to 7.0m, while the female can grow up to 6.4m. They are all black, white, and gray in color. They are mostly found in cold water, place near the polar region. They car, also be Bound in Western Mediterranean, Arabian Sea, and the Gulf of Aden. They like the deeper water so sometime they can stay down there for 5-15 minutes. however, it is very rarefy for them to Stay underwater for more than 5 minutes. Do not let their name make them have bad reputation; they are called the Miler whales, but they never killed in the wild before. They only feed on animals that are smaller than them, sea lion is one the things they eat they are also secondary predators.

As you can see, the oceans have some very unique characteristics that you cannot find in other biome. Therefore, the ocean is very important to us, not only because of evaporation but also all the sea life. Some marine lives are facing extinction, which is because we are harming them. Not only by polluting but also by not showing that you care. If we continue to pollute the ocean and not showing care, a lot of marine will extinct not long after. By then we cannot look at some really unique animals that is only found in our biome, that is going to be really sad to some people who precious these animals. Love and save your environment by doing your part, if everybody starts acting that way we would never worry about extinction again. One word to always keep in mind is that we have to think about the root of everything. If no water equal no rain, if no rain the agriculture business would fall apart. You will just have to keep in mind that you should precious everything that you have, before you cannot see it no more. Next time if you see a big blue body of water, breathe deep sand feel what is it like to be in the nature.

Written by May Dan Kuang

Desert Biome

The desert biome is mostly located in northern Africa, western North America, western Asia, the center of Australia, and on the west coast of South America. It is the hottest biome on earth and is known of the land of extremes. It can be extremely hot and extremely cold. The plants and animals found in the desert are ones that are very adapted to the environment of course.

The desert can be over 38C during the day but below 0C at night. This is because the desert is bare. There is little protection to keep them from heating up in the sun and cooling off when the sun disappears at night. The amount of rainfall also varies. Deserts only receive less then 25cm of rain each year. Even though there is little rain in the desert, when it does, it pours. It can cause flashfloods in the desert. After a storm, it might not rain for weeks or months. Deserts receive the least rain in spring and summer. In December to March is the time period when the desert receives the most precipitation. In May and June it doesn't receive any at all. The temperatures in the desert get so hot that they cause you to hallucinate. During the winter the temperatures are lower than usual, in spring and summer it gets hotter, and in the fall it cools down a little bit.

In the desert you would find many plants. They also have to adjust to very hot days and very cold nights. Some plants have very long roots that grow in to the ground to reach underground water sources. Some even suck up as much water as they can when it rains and they save it in their stems and leaves. Rain also brings life to the desert. After a big storm, billion of seeds get buried and they come to life, but after only about 8 weeks, the flowers would be gone. The most common desert plant is the cactus. Some other desert plants are the saguaro. The stem of the Saguaro Cactus stores all of its water. Other plants in the desert are barrel cactuses, dragon tree, octillo tree, boojum, yucca, and the agave plant.

There are hundreds of different animals that live in the desert. Most of them can only be found at dawn or dusk because that is when they move around. Animals in the desert eat plants and each other to survive. Many feed on the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of plants. Bigger animals then eat these animals. The desert jackrabbit eats on cactus. Camels are the most well known desert animal. Other desert animals include addax, armadillo lizard, cactus wren, chuckwalla, dingo, great mouse tail bat, lappet-faced vulture, northern grasshopper mouse, sidewinder, and western blind snake.

The desert is unique in many ways. It is also very different from every other biome. Some deserts are even cold. It's called the Gobi Desert in Asia. There are even some types of desert. One called rain shadow deserts. Mountains on the edge of deserts prevent rain from entering. The rain stays on the other side of the mountain creating rain forests next to many deserts. Deserts are second only to tropical rain forests in the variety of plants and animals that live there. So as you can see, this biome is very unique in its own way and that is what is so great about it.

Written by Nancy Nguyen

Tropical Rain Forest

Normally found in Brazil, Asian, and south Africa is the Tropical Rainforest. It occurs near the equator with a latitude of 23.5 degrees North. They have a high primary productivity, even though they exist mainly on quite infertile soils. In a tropical rainforest the temperature ranges from 20-25C but it varies through out the year. The rainfall is very high with heat that is constant. It's generally 200-450 cm per year.

There's over 100 different trees, that are 23-25m tall. There are very short dry periods through out the year. Being only 12 hours of sunlight daily less than 2% reaches the ground. There are 3 layers which are canopy, the understory, and the ground layer. Most of the nutrients are held in the plants themselves and are rapidly recycled when the plants die or when parts such as leaves fall off and decompose. A lot of the roots from the tall trees spread 1 or 2cm of the soil and take the nutrients from decomposing leaves and other plant parts.

The one day Orchid, it only blooms for one day. It is found on the forest floor and uses trees and tall plants for support. It is one of the most interesting and rarest plant found in an tropical rainforest. Threes other plants such as the non native plants and exotic plants. Tropical rainforest contain more than half of the worlds species of living things. Like forest carnivores, deer, bird of prays such as eagles, hawks, owls, bats, marmosets, and bromeliads vines. The Peru or Brazil tropical rainforest may hold 1,200 or more species of butterflies, twice the total of the US. There are many undiscovered species being destroyed many may be possible cures for cancer and AIDS.

The tropical rainforest is the one of the richest biomes in terms of number of species. Rainforest are disappearing at about 0.3km2 per minute day and night. As the population of the earth grows the more we need rainforests. If it continues major climatic changes will occur. The tropical rainforest once covered more than 16% of the earth's total land surface but now they cover less than 6%.

Written by Christina Wagner

Grassland Biome

Our biome is on grassland and the terrain is mostly covered with grass. Grassland are found throughout the world except Antarctica. Sometimes grasslands are called prairies, Savannah, or steppes. These grasslands are usually found between the desert and the forest. There are three different types of grasslands such as Tall grasslands could grow as high as 2m. The mixed grassland could grow as high as 0.6-0.9m. That last type of grassland which is short grassland are desert like because its plants are short. Grasslands summer temperature is 38C and during winter season it is -40C.

Grassland land environment is difficult for plants to survive because 25-76cm of rain per year isn't a lot. There isn't much trees in grasslands because there is too much rain and not too much water. Grasslands have high organic content and concentration of calcium carbonate in the B horizon which typifies the dark brown most soils developed under the grassland temperature. It also has the world's most fertile soils like the Chernozems. The Chernozem is usually in eastern prairies of the US, the pampas of South America, and the steppes of Ukraine and Russia.

One quarter of the Earth's land are Grassland. The typical plants in grasslands are Prairie blazing star. The Blazing star is one of the most beautiful flowers on the tall grass prairie and could grow as high as 9m. The blazing star's color is magenta and many types of butterflies are attracted to it. Another type of flower found in grasslands is the Sweet cone flower. The cone flower could grow as high as 1.8m if it is planted in moist soil. The animals found in grasslands are the Warthog, Black Rhinoceros, and the brown hyena. Warthogs survive by eating small mammals and eats carrion. The black Rhinoceros survive by eating leaves, buds, and small trees or bushes. The brown hyena survive by staying near the coast line and prey on dead whales and seals.

Therefore grasslands are good a habit for these animals and they could survive well with only 25-76 cm of rain a year. Some of these animals could prey on other animals easy because of the high grass that cover them. There is good soil to produce plants for the animals to eat and it continues the cycle of grassland life.

Written by Jeremy Hui

 

Tundra

Just think it's an excruciatingly hot day and you badly need somewhere to cool off. The you would want to come down to our biome. Our biome is called a Tundra. It's very cold with temperatures from 10C to -12C basically it's the same temperature all year round. You can find most of these places in Northern Canada, Russia, and Alaska (The United States). From the moment that you step onto the Tundra all you can see in white snow and ice or frozen brownish water. The ground is frozen year-round, known as permafrost. Tundra is a polar desert with low rainfall and precipitation. The rainfall is scarce; it only rains 25cm a year. The plants grow in the North of the arctic tundra. The winters are long and cold, and there is a short growing season, of less than 60 days. There is an annual 0 to 24 hour change in day length. There is constant darkness in the winter, and constant sunlight during the summer.

If you're a hunter then I don't think that you'll want to come to our Tundra's because hunting and pouching is illegal. But for the others that like animals or like to observe them we have many different types. Such as Arctic Fox, Polar Bear, Golden Eagle, Red Phalarope, and for you invertebrate lovers we have worms and crabs which come to our Tundra's during migration. Most of the animals are carnivores which eats smaller animals and hunt for their food while others eat plants and seed that grow around the tundra. We also have many endangered species. For instance the Chinook salmon, Green Sea Turtle, Curlew Eskimo, American Peregrine Falcon, and the Northern Sperm Whale just to name a few. We also have many plants such as lichen, dark red leaves, cotton grass, cushion plants, and many different types of seeds. The plants that grow there are shrubby or mat-like vegetation. This area encircles the North Pole and extends to the taiga to the south.

Written by Rowena Kumar

Tropical Rain Forest

Our Biome is on a Tropical Rain Forest. Most Tropical rain forest is located in tropical parts of the world. Meaning places that are hot and humid are most likely to be a tropical rain forest. All across the world tropical rain forests are located in Asia, Africa and South America. A lot of the things found in the tropical rain forest are in America. Such as fruits and animals. Parrots are one type of bird that most Americans own in the United States today. One way of noticing a tropical rain forest is that all tropical rain forests are located in places which are hot and humid. That's because the sun shines there a lot, and the weather feels real warm. Ways you can research a tropical rain forest is searching the web for information, and pictures in which how a tropical rain forest looks.

A Tropical Rain forest looks very colorful. Most things that live in the rain forest are all camouflage. Like for frogs, they might look the same as a tree. Most living creatures are to be camouflage so that nothing will bother them. Some plants in the tropical rain forest have spikes that stick out. The spike on the plants can poke out and poison you if the plant is a poisonous plant. Some organism in the rain forest is organisms such as Chimpanzees, snakes, bird and etc. The rain forest has a big mammal population meaning there is a big amount of species of different types of living organism. The tropical rain forest is a very big place. When you visit a tropical rain forest your goal is to be very careful. You may never know what pops out; it can be a snake animal or even bugs. What are scary about a tropical rain forest are the birds. There are a lot of birds in the Rain forest that can either is up to 61cm long or even bigger.

The annual rainfall of a tropical rain forest is one point five to ten meters of rain. In that case there can be some major floods in certain parts of the tropical rain forest. In Africa the annual rainfall of a tropical rain forest there is about 178cm of rain. The temperature there is about 26.7C; One flood can cause a major casualty for a species that live in the tropical rain forest. Ten meters of rainfall is a lot of water. If like it rains ten meters of water in a 0.8km2 spot. That can be like a lake if the water is stored there without being evaporated. The way I would describe a tropical rain forest is that it's very bright and colorful. There are a lot of different types of plants in the tropical rain forest. Such as many different types of roses and violets. Vegetation grows in the rain forest also. Some vegetation is eggplants, turnip, David Sonia and Alloxyton flamigeux. The environment of a Tropical Rain forest is that it's a place that really looks beautiful, but everything is like all messy in a good way. The trees are all very tall and some of the dirt on the ground is all muddy and dirty.

The water cycle in the Tropical Rain forest is that the water comes from the heavy rain during the year. Then the water falls into a spot where lots of water is located. At the spot where the water is stored that's where all the animals and creatures go to get a drink of water. The water forms what is called a pond. The sun then evaporates the water, which repeats its cycle all over again. Most rainfall comes during the spring and winter of the year. During the summer, and fall the weather is just hot as a frying pan. Most creatures go in search of a place too cool off. If a animal can't find a place too cool off they mite go and find something good to eat which is fruity, and can get their minds off of things. From my own sources I think that the soil in the rain forest must contain a lot of minerals because a lot of things have died in the rain forest. A rain forest is mostly located near an ocean. Lots of water comes from the ocean that waters the plants. The plants are water by a process. First the water goes onto the soil. The soil then saturates the water bring it to a plant that is in need of water. Some certain nutrients found in the in the soil are leftovers from a dead bug.

Some plants that I can name in the rain forest are David Sonia, Syzyglum, Luehmannii and Elaeocarpus ticulatus. These plants are located in spots that are wet and humid. These certain plants survive by the way they grow. Some of the plants form a camouflage. A camouflage is that a living thing shade matches their own surroundings. Another way a plant can survive is by have a hard protection. Like Durian, durian has a hard shell to protect itself from animals trying to eat them. A durian ion a tropical fruit that some people like to eat. The Durian tastes good but its smell is not polite.

Some animals in the rain forest are Chimpanzees. A Chimp can survive itself because their brains are very intelligent. A gorilla is not as intelligent as a Chimpanzee but a Gorilla has a lot of muscle. A bearded pig that lives in the rain forest looks very funny. It's fat, and hairy. The bearded Pig eats hay and certain creatures, which live in the Tropical rain forest. The Bearded Pig lives in a spot that is all muddy. Where lots of bugs fly around. You can consider that a bearded pig is very dirty, and that no one wants to eat it. Like if a jaguar was hungry I don't think that the jaguar would eat a dirty pig. The way the Bearded Pig might smell is very musty since the pig rolls in the mud, and its sweaty sweat.

As your journey comes to a halt. You should be getting a picture in your mind of a Tropical rain forest. As you can see that the tropical rain forest is home too many types of species, plants and food. The weather there is pretty mild, and humid. There are over two tropical rain forests on earth. Tropical rain forest is located at the southern parts of different continents. There are 3 known places, which a Tropical rain forest is located. One in Asia one in Africa and one in South America. The number one predator in the tropical rain forest to watch for is a snake. Snakes roam around the forest in seeks for things to bite. The Cobra will poison you with its venom if one bites you. Cobras and other types of snakes claim the forest besides other animals. Tropical Rain forest is a place to visit if you are a person that loves nature. Many environmentalists today are trying their best to keep the rain forest clean. What that means is to not cut down trees or hunt for animals that are becoming an endanger species.

Written by Peter Yee

Tropical Rain Forest

Peter Yee, Robert Tang, Jeffrey Chen, Li, Li Fu, and I Reggie Moore are members of the TRFIC our mission is to inform you the scientific information on the world's Tropical Rain Forest that we've just researched. In this presentation you will have gained knowledge not just on our Biome but other thing's for example the animals that live in Tropical Rain Forest, the environment, its temperature and the location just to name a few. We the group members have been asked to come together and work as a cohesive unit and also to teach you the facts about this particular Biome. One other thing just so you know all the information that we present to you has taken years to find out about the Tropical Rain Forest we are the first to deliver the information to you NASA's data has nothing on us were are the best at what we do. The

Tropical Rain Forest is possibly the most diverse Biome in the world. Tropical Rain Forests can be found in Brazil, Southeast Asia, Pacific Island and West Africa. The average temperature ranges from 25 to 35C. The average rainfall is about 250cm annually each year. Some typical animals that are found in this Biome are Toucan Sam, Jaguars, Chimpanzee's, Parrots, Gorillas and last but not least everybody favorite animal Tarantula's. The Tropical Rain Forest is home to some of the smallest to largest animals in the world they all are dangerous, beautiful, and even the strangest looking ones. Some plants that can be found just to name a few athrium, caladium, philodendron and garden callas.

The name "Tropical Rain Forest" came from the forest specific location. It can be found in Latin America one third of the world's Tropical Rain Forest are also in Brazil. Three others are located in Southeast Asia also Pacific Islands and West Africa. The average temperature rises from 25 to 35C the average rainfall 250cm of rain annually each year. But the largest temperature Rainforest are found on the Pacific Coast. Some smaller Rainforest can be found on the Southeast Coast of Chile in South America. Some typical animals that are found in this Biome are Ramphastos Sulfuratis ( Toucan Sam) and Fulgora Laternaria ( Peanut Head Bug). Because of high rainfall the plants growths is very robust its just mainly the cycle its regrowth of leaves occur through out every year. Most of the animals that were named live in different types of the Rain Forest. Some key features are to watch out for the spectacular art work and the given information that the Tropical Rain Forest Information Center offers.

Presented by Reggie Moore

Temperate Rain Forest

All along the western coast of North America, stretching from just South of Anchorage, Alaska, to the northern part of California is an ecosystem that scientist are only now starting to fully explore. It is often called the Temperate Rain Forest. It is the temperate rain Forest. It is an area where land and sea meets. There are glaciers covered peaks and deep ocean water.

On the west coast the people have found the region where there are mild winters and summers. Summer temperate rarely exceed 30C and winter seldom goes below 0C. There are occasional blasts of cold arctic air that will send temperatures drooping and cause snow to fall even on coastal beaches, and such weather is rare. There is a lot of rain that falls here. In the heaviest months, From October to April, there is often three to four storms a week. Many weather stations record over 15cm of precipitation per month during this period. This rain fall is known as orographic rainfall. The precipitation exceeds 400cm and some times 30cm per year in the interior.

The Pacific Old Growth Forest isn't well known. There are only four species of trees are common and there are only several thousand species of insects. There are also browser. Browser is a animal that eats tree leaves, twigs and branches.

Written by Shardae Calloway

Deserts

Can you imagine yourself living in a place, where it's always hot, humid, and little water? The desert is the hottest biome on Earth. An area where there's less than an average of 100mm of rainfall is considered a desert. Most deserts lie in between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. Deserts can be found on 5 of the 7 continents: North America, South America, Africa, Asia and Australia. The average annual rainfall is less than 25cm per year. Deserts can get extremely hot. The air can be up to 40-50C, the sand is 75C and the land can range from 51.67-56.67OC. As you probably already know, deserts are known for its cactuses and reptiles. As you read along, you will learn more about the different kinds of plant and animal life of deserts.

When you think of deserts, you think hot and dry, right? Those two things are exactly what a desert is. The reason that it's always so hot is because there's little rainfall. The desert is known as a land of extreme because during the day, the temperature can be well over 38C and during the night, it can be below 0C, which is freezing point. That is because deserts are bare and they don't have anything to keep the desert cool as well as keep it warm. The seasons are usually warm throughout the year and extremely hot during the summer. Winter is when there's little rainfall. The rainfall is usually low and when it does rain, lots of rain pours down at once. It can cause floods by the rainstorms, and after that, the desert may not see any more rain for the next couple of weeks or months. Those couple of days or weeks is the only time where the desert will receive all of the year's rainfall. So all of the plants and animals will only receive rain then, and that's it for the year. The water cycle kind of fits into a desert but not quite. First it rains, but the rain can evaporate before it hits the ground. The plants collect the water that does fall to the ground. Plants can lose the water that they've collected and evaporate into the air. Since there isn't any area of water, the precipitation has nowhere to go except for the plants. Then the whole cycle begins again. So basically, the water cycle of a desert contains rain, plants, and evaporation

Since deserts are hot and dry, would you expect to find any life there? Despite the climate, there is some plant life. In fact, it was estimated that there are about 1,200 species of plant to be found in the Sahara. The main source of food for plants is water so it's a real challenge since water is so scarce. Desert floras have adapted to the environment by avoiding the low rainfall or take in the water. The storm can kill the plant or it may drown it. Ephemeral, also known as annual plants survive in periods where there's little water because their seeds sprout only after heavy rain. They will grow rapidly and live their whole life cycle in just a few days. Can you believe that grasses grow in a desert too? They can store a large amount of water in its roots for later sprouting. The top of the plant, where it's above the surface, will eventually die but thanks to its roots, it can grow again. The roots will not die if the top portion does. Geophytes remain underground most of the time, as bulbs. They wait for rain to come and when it does, it quickly produces stems and flowers. Succulents, like the grass I mentioned take in large amounts of water and stores it for droughts. They have a really low surface area and it causes the plant to lose water because of evaporation. They use photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds by using energy from the sunlight, like most plants. The best known succulents are cacti. A kind of cacti is the saguaro, which can grow up to 15 meters over the years. There are also shrubs and small trees in a desert. The leaves are usually shed during the hottest season of the year. Their roots try and search for water beneath the surface so it can be as deep as 50 meters under the ground. There is this one tree named the Joshua Tree which is in the Mojave Desert which has spiky leaves and fruit which some animals eat. Some have short thick trunks that are used to pick up water when it rains. Most plants in the desert look very much different from what we've seen. They grow spikes or thorns to protect themselves from being eaten by other animals.

The animals living in a desert need to adapt to the climate in order for them to survive. The obstacles that they go through are the extreme temperatures, lack of food and shortage of water. However, all sorts of animals can be found in a desert. They usually try and hide behind rocks to avoid the sunlight or bury themselves in the sand. There aren't much large animals that live in the desert due to the heat and not able to store water in their bodies. There's even been fish found. Mammals living in the desert are able maintain a constant body temperature despite of the weather. When they get hot, they sweat and it comes onto their skin which then evaporates and that keeps them cool. The mammals that live there are usually small like the kangaroo rat because there isn't enough food for large animals to feed off of. These mammals include insect-eaters like hedgehogs and carnivores such as foxes, cats, and weasels. However there are large animals like the camel, gazelles and antelopes. They have found their own way of surviving. Camels can drink up to 25% of their body weight with water. They can store large amounts so they can use it when there isn't any water. They also store large reserves of fat in their humps and use that as food when there isn't any. Insects found in deserts are members of a group of organisms known as arthropods. It contains arachnids, which are scorpions, spiders, solifugids, mites and ticks, crustaceans, which are crabs, lobsters and woodlice, and myriapods, which are centipedes and millipedes. Arachnids have a hard waxy outer layer, which is waterproof so they don't lose water due to evaporation. The crustaceans and myriapods often hide in the sand to avoid the heat and sunlight. There are also flying insects like locusts. They fly across the desert to find food and water and sometimes travel in a large pact covering as much as 1,000 square kilometers, and can destroy crops at an alarming rate. Other flying insects are flies, wasps, butterflies and moths. Insects that don't fly include earwigs, termites, ants and beetles. Scarab beetles eat the dung of desert animals such as camels and goats, which they roll into balls and bury in the ground. The predatory carabid beetle hides from the sun while at night it comes out and hunts. Scorpions are probably the best adapted animals in a desert. They lose water very slowly, and nearly all of them spend their days in burrows or under rocks. Scorpions have pincers, which are used to hold their prey while they shoot them a deadly poison from the sting in their tail. They mostly eat insects and spiders, but sometimes will kill other scorpions. All of these insects I mentioned are invertebrates, which means they don't have a backbone. The creatures that do have a backbone are called reptiles and they're cold-blooded. This means that their own body cannot keep them warm so they rely on the environment The sun can sometimes be too much for them so they move from shadow to shadow. Reptiles have thick skin and don't lose a lot of water. Most of them usually hunt or is active at night because they are cold blooded and there isn't any sun for them to keep their bodies warm so they don't have much energy. The main and most common reptiles found in deserts are lizards, snakes and tortoises. Lizards and snakes are carnivorous, but tortoises are herbivores. The smaller lizards get their food and fluids from insects while snakes and larger lizards eat small mammals, eggs and other lizards. The last group of animals is birds. They have 2 great advantages: one, they can fly great distances in search of food and water and two, their flight generates a lot of heat. Birds are naturally adapted to high body temperatures and their feathers help them in the process from the heat of the sun. Since there aren't many trees or bushes in a desert, these birds have to adapt to a life on the ground. Many of them are much smaller than places in other regions. They mostly eat insects, while others survive on seeds and some even eat small mammals. As you can see, there are a variety of animals that call a desert home.

Deserts seem like an interesting place to live but a real challenge. You have to adapt to this and that since the climate is so different than what we are used to. Only certain living things are able to survive in this type of environment. I think it would be hard for human beings to actually live in the desert since our bodies can only take in a certain amount of heat and we always need water to survive. I've always known that cactuses lived there, but there were many more different kinds of plant as well as animals. The insects and reptiles seemed to fit into this environment but I can't imagine so many plants living there. Now I can see why deserts are such a unique place, with such an extreme climate and all the different life out there. I would want to go and visit a desert but only for a couple of hours and if I have lots of bottles of ice cold water on me. In conclusion, deserts are definitely the neatest and hottest biome on earth!

Written by: Lori Cheng

Presented by: Adaysha Patton

  Desert Biomes

  1. Explain what a desert is
    1. Imagine, you're driving through the desert in a jeep. You are searching for an endangered animal. Then all of a sudden the jeep stops, Its about 100C, no wind blowing. And you have just drunk last bit of water you had. What do you do? Don't panic, luckily you know a little bit about the deserts so you know that cactuses have water in them. Now that you have all this time on your hands take a look at the scenery. There are a lot of Saguaro Cactuses, a few Dragon trees, and a couple of Prickly pears. Up in the shy you'll notice a couple of Lappet faced Vultures, flying around in a circle. Two Dingoes sprint by you. And there, sitting on a rock is the animal you were looking for. You break out your camera and start your research.
    2. Average Rainfall is less than 25.4cm per year
      1. Winter is when there is little rainfall. The rainfall is usually low and when it does rain, lots of rain pores down at once. Those couple of days or weeks is the only time when the desert will receive all the years rainfall. So all of the plants and animals will receive rain hen and that's it for the whole year. The seasons are generally warm throughout thr year and very hot in the summer. The winters usually bring little rainfall. Temperatures exhibit all extremes because the atmosphere contains little humidity to block the Sun's rays. Deserts surfaces receive a little more than twice the solar radiation received by humid regions and lose almost twice as much heat at night. Many mean annual temperatures range from 20-25OC. The extreme maximum ranges from 43.5-49 c. minimum temperature sometimes drop 10 -18 OC.
    3. When you think of deserts you probably think lots of cactuses, sand, and weird types of animals. Well that is not what the desert is, there is a whole lot more to the desert than just that. Deserts cover about 1/5 of the earth's surface. And is considered the hottest biome on the earth. Although most deserts like the Sahara Of North Africa and the deserts of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, And Australia, occur at low latitudes. There is another type of desert too, which is the Cold desert.
    4. Cold deserts
      1. Cold deserts are deserts that is characterized by cold winters. And occur in the Antarctic, Greenland and in the Arctic realm. Cold deserts are very cold in the winter with a lot of snowfall and high overall rainfall throughout the winter and sometimes over the summer. The mean winter temperature is between -2 to 4 OC and the mean summer temperature is between 21-26 OC.
  2. Plants and Animals
    1. Birds
      1. The power of flight gives birds two major advantages over many other animals in the struggle for survival in the desert. The first of these is fairly obvious - flight allows birds to cover great distances in the search for food and water. The second advantage is that because flight generates a lot of heat, birds are naturally adapted to high body temperatures. Feathers also play their part in insulating birds from the heat of the sun. Two major groups of birds inhabit the Sahara - those that spend their whole lives there, and those that migrate from other parts of the world during winter. Because there are very few trees and bushes in the desert, any birds which live there must be adapted to a life on the ground. Desert birds tend to be smaller than those that live in other regions of the world. Many desert birds live on a diet of insects, whilst others survive on seeds and sometimes small mammals reptiles
    2. Insects, spiders and scorpions are invertebrates -
    3. Insects
      1. They do not have an internal skeleton with a backbone.
      2. Of all the animals found in the deserts, insects are the most numerous. Insects are members of a group of organisms known as arthropods, which also contains arachnids (scorpions, spiders, solifugids, mites and ticks), crustaceans (crabs, lobsters and woodlice), and myriapods (centipedes and millipedes). Representatives of all these groups live in the world's deserts. True insects and arachnids have a hard waxy outer layer, which is waterproof and allows very little water loss due to evaporation. This is an obvious advantage where temperatures are high and water is in short supply. Woodlice, centipedes and millipedes, on the other hand, do not have this feature but are also able to survive admirably in deserts, often by burrowing into the sand during the hottest parts of the day. Some desert insects can fly, but the ability of others can be poor or non-existent. Flight allows them to cover great distances in the search for food and water. Among the flying insects in the deserts are locusts. Although individually they are fairly unremarkable, they can group together in enormous swarms covering as much as 1,000 square kilometers, and they can destroy crops at an alarming rate. Other flying insects in deserts include flies, wasps, butterflies and moths. Among the flightless insects that abound in desert regions are earwigs, termites, ants and beetles. Some of the most remarkable of these are the honey pot ants, which take advantage of the sudden occasional spurts of ephemeral plant growth brought on by the erratic desert rains. Confronted with an excess of nectar, these ants nominate some of their workers to act as living storage jars, which are then fed huge amounts of nectar until their bodies swell to several times their normal size. These special ants then feed the others in times of shortage. Scarab beetles feed on the dung of desert animals such as camels and goats, which they roll into balls and bury in the ground. The predatory carabid beetle shelters from the sun during the day, but emerges at night to hunt. Despite their hard casing, insects are still vulnerable to the desert's extremes. Because of their small size water loss is a serious problem, and relatively few insects spend long periods on the surface during the day. Many desert insects burrow into the sand where the temperature remains almost constant, and it is common for insects to stay there until darkness falls. However, some beetles that stay on the surface use their long legs to keep their bodies as far away from the hot sand as possible. Scorpions are among the best adapted creatures to the arid environment. Although they have a very low rate of water-loss, nearly all desert scorpions are nocturnal, spending their days in burrows or under rocks. Scorpions are carnivorous and have pincers with which to seize their prey while they administer a deadly poison from the sting in their tail. Their main diet consists of insects and spiders, but they will sometimes kill other scorpions, particularly if they are in a small place. Scorpions rarely drink, obtaining most of the fluids they require from their prey. Despite their fearsome reputation, scorpions are shy creatures and few of them are dangerous to humans. Desert spiders tend to be large in order to minimize loss of water through their surface. Because of the lack of vegetation in many parts of the desert, there is little opportunity for web building, so most desert spiders hunt on the ground. They avoid the heat by burrowing or taking cover under rocks, emerging at night to seek out their prey. Many spiders are camouflaged to escape from larger desert predators. In the Sahara, wolf spiders and jumping spiders are common, although there are a wealth of other species to be found, many of them still unidentified. Similar to spiders and scorpions, and sharing characteristics of both, are the solifugids or camel spiders. Spending most of the day in burrows, they can measure up to 12cm across, and feed on insects, spiders, scorpions, small mammals, lizards and birds. Like scorpions, camel spiders can endure extreme temperatures for long periods, and rarely drink. Woodlice, centipedes, and millipedes are all found in deserts, and the Sahara has its fair share. Woodlice do not have the waterproof outer layer possessed by insects and arachnids, but nonetheless are able to withstand desert conditions well. Centipedes and millipedes typically have a large number of legs and no waterproof outer layer. Centipedes can grow up to 20cm long and have poisonous claws to subdue their prey. Millipedes are less widespread than
      3. woodlice and centipedes in the Sahara, being less well-adapted to the desert environment. Successful desert millipedes tend to be large and centipedes in the Sahara, being less well-adapted to the desert environment. Successful desert millipedes tend to be large.
    4. Reptiles
      1. In the desert the most numerous vertebrates - creatures with a backbone and internal skeleton - are reptiles. Unlike other vertebrates such as birds and mammals, they are cold-blooded. This means that they cannot generate their own body heat, so they rely on the external environment in order to maintain a relatively constant body temperature. All manner of reptiles are found throughout the world's deserts - in the Sahara alone there are nearly 100 species. Reptiles have a natural advantage over other animals in the form of a thick skin that minimizes water loss. Many reptiles are more active during the day than at night because they are cold-blooded. During the night, when temperatures often fall to around freezing point, reptiles lose their body heat and consequently have very little energy for hunting. During the day they can take full advantage of the sun's warming rays, and this is the time when they have the energy to look for prey. However, the desert heat can be too much even for reptiles, so they avoid over-exposure by moving from one shadow to another. There are three main types of reptile found in the deserts - lizards, snakes and tortoises. The first two are almost exclusively carnivorous, but tortoises are herbivores. Smaller lizards obtain their food and fluids from insects while snakes and large lizards feed on small mammals, eggs and other lizards. Desert reptiles can range from a few centimeters in length to over 1.5 meters. The largest is the desert monitor lizard which is found in the Sahara among other places and can attain lengths of up to 1.6m.
    5. Mammals
      1. The three main obstacles to survival in the desert are high temperatures, lack of water and shortage of food. Like birds, mammals have the ability to maintain a constant body temperature regardless of external conditions, and this can be both an advantage and a disadvantage in the desert. This means they can endure a large range of temperatures - but most mammals are unable to tolerate even a small rise in body temperature without encountering problems. When most mammals get hot they produce sweat through glands in their skin, and the evaporation of this liquid cools them down and helps them maintain a constant body temperature. Some mammals also use panting to produce the same effect. Both these methods work admirably, but they have one important drawback where life in the desert is concerned - they involve substantial water loss. Where water is in short supply, animals must minimize loss, so few desert mammals use sweating and panting as their main method of keeping cool. Because the scarcity of food in the desert limits the number of large animals that can be supported, most desert mammals are small. The Sahara is home to around 40 species of rodents, including gerbils, girds, mice and jerboas. Jerboas have large hind legs that allow them to run very fast. Other small mammals include insect-eaters such as hedgehogs and shrews, and carnivores such as foxes, cats, weasels and genets. Being small has its advantages and disadvantages. Rodents can burrow into the sand and hide under rocks to avoid the sun's rays. But their small body size means a greater exposure to the sun, causing body temperature to rise more rapidly and more valuable water to evaporate. Most small mammals make the most of the positive side to their small size, spending the day in burrows under the sand and emerging at night when the temperature drops to a more comfortable level. This option, however, is not available to larger desert-dwelling mammals such as antelopes, gazelles, asses, goats, sheep and camels. Instead they have each developed their own strategies for survival. Camels, gazelles and antelopes are all capable of surviving substantial increases in body temperature, thereby reducing the need to sweat. Gazelles and antelopes. can tolerate body temperatures of up to 46C - and camels can withstand daily body temperature ranges exceeding 22 C. Under normal conditions body temperatures as high as this would lead to dehydration and brain damage, but desert mammals have developed special mechanisms to avoid these. Camels and asses can drink up to 25 per cent of their body weight in a very short space of time, and they are able to store large amounts of water in their stomachs so that they can go for days without drinking. Camels have the added advantage of being able to store large reserves of fat in their humps, which they can use when food is scarce. An apparently curious feature of many large desert mammals is their thick coats. In cold climates animals have thick coats to keep heat in and prevent body temperature from falling below a safe level. But dense hair also insulates animals' bodies against the heat. For example, the outermost layer of hair on a camel may be up to 30 C warmer than its body temperature. Sheep and goats also have thick coats, but their preferred habitat is the rocks and mountains of the deserts, where water and vegetation is more plentiful. In this environment, their agility helps them to survive. Most of the large mammals that inhabit the desert are herbivores. They get most of the liquids they need from their food - indeed, gazelles can spend their whole lives without drinking. Large carnivores are uncommon in arid environments due to the shortage of prey species, but lions are found in some areas of African desert.

Presented by Adaysha Patton-Douglas

 

Savanna

Savanna is a biome that I am going to write about. It is easy to be found in Africa, Australia, and Indian.

A savanna is a rolling grassland, dotted with trees. It can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome. Burning the forest and felling the tree create savanna. Large animals also can turn a forest to a savanna. Savanna has hot and dry climates. Temperatures range from 17.9 to 22.4C. Annual rainfall depends on the geographic location. Some savannas get as little as 25cm of rainfall per year and some can get as much as 127cm per year. Not enough rain falls on savanna to support a rainforest or for it to be called a prairie.

There are actually two very different seasons in a savanna; a very dry reason (winter), and very wet season (summer). In the dry season only an average of about 10cm of rain falls. Between December and February no rain will fall at all. It is actually a little cooler during this dry season. But don't expect sweater weather: It is still around 21C. In the summer there is lot of rain. In Africa the monsoon rains begin in May. An average of 38 to 64cm of rain falls during this time. It gets hot and very humid during the rainy season. Every day the hot, humid air above and turn into rain. In the afternoon on the summer savanna the rain pour down for hours.

Savannas have porous soil, with only a thin covering of nutrient. Savanna's soils contain usually low concentrations of nutrients. Still, Savanna's soil have nutrient equal to that of the rainforest's soils. During the dry season, surface water from the rain is quickly absorbed into the ground because the soil is extremely porous. Like a sandy sink a sluggish drain, the savanna hold rainwater. Rainwater slowly absorbs through a hard layer below the sand called hardpan. The marsh is sensitive to fluctuate in water level and as little as 15cm could mean the difference between wet prairie and pine flat woods. Some years, the floodwaters run freely through the pine forest on the western side.

Plants of savannas are special to grow in this environment of long periods of drought. They have long taproots that can reach the deep water table, thick bark to resist annual fires, trunks that can store water, and leaves that drop of during the winter to conserve water. The grasses are the most plant life in the savanna. Some grasses grow 180 to 270 cm tall. Some grasses are too sharp or bitter tasting for some animals. Many grasses grow from the bottom up, so that the growth tissue doesn't get damage by grazers. The grasses to live in the dry season and the fire, they have developed an adaptation that help them to grow quickly where there is enough water. Then when water becomes less, the grasses turn brown to limit water loss. They keep moisture and nutrients in their roots and have storage organs like bulb and corms while they wait for the rainy season coming. Trees usually grow alone in small dusters such as the acacia and baobab trees are common in African savannas.

Most of the animals on the savanna have long legs or wings to be able to go on long migrations., Many burrow underground to avoid the heat or raise their young. Animals like lions; zebras, elephants, and giraffe's and many types of ungulates (animals with hooves) graze and bunt. Many large grass-eating mammals (herbivores) can survive here because they can move around and eat the plentiful grass. There are a lot of carnivores (meat eaters) that eat them in turn. The savanna is a perfect place for birds of prey like hawks and buzzards. The wide, open plain provides them with a clear view of their prey, hot air updrafts keep them soaring, and there is the occasional tree to rest on or nest in. Animals don't sweat to lose body heat, so they lose it though panting or through large areas of exposed skin, or ears, like those of the elephants. During the rainy season, more birds, insects, both small and large mammals appears in savanna. During the dry season, most birds and large mammals move to search for water. When drought conditions exist for a long time, the animals may go to another biomes until the rainy season begins again.

Savannas have a hot and dry climate with the temperatures range from 17.9C to 22.4C. It has different kind of animals and plants. They all depend on each other to keep the environment in balance. It has two different seasons; a very dry season, and a very wet season. Burning the forest by the sacred fires creates it. Large animals also can turn the forest to savanna by knocking down the trees.

Written by Bich Ha Tran

Savannah

In the Savannah, a grassland which have a few trees, the temperate is about 17-22.4C. This temperature is able for many animals such as lions, elephants, zebras, etc. In the quiet colors grassland, a lion want to hunt the zebra, although the zebra run faster and faster, the lion can catch it by their skill, then killed it by this sharp teeth and tear off the zebra's meat. The rainfall in Savannah are 100-400mm, so very birds like Lark Sparrow and Lark Bunting will be produce and feed their body in the Baobab tree. But in the winter, it will be cool to under 17C to 14 C.

Presented by Jacky Lao

Arctic Tundra

The name of the biome is arctic tundra and an easy location you can find an arctic tundra is Greenland located in the Northern hemisphere, encircling the North Pole and extending to the South Pole, arctic tundra cover about 1/5 of earth's surface. It has a frost molded boggy-like landscape. The biggest arctic tundra is the northern arctic coastal plain, which is 49,500 sq. km. It is level plain that is less than 300 meters in elevation. It is extremely cold in the arctic. In the winter, it averages around -34C. The coldest occurs in North Eastern Siberia. In the summer it averages around 7C. The warmest also occur in North Eastern Siberia. The annual precipitation is very low throughout the year. It is only 18cm in rain. The organisms. There are mostly dead and organic materials, which function as a nutrient pool. There are many organisms that have adapted to this tundra. An example is a polar bear; it has a layer of fat that keeps it warm.

The arctic tundra's environment is very unique. It has many plants and trees. Grows some vegetation by permafrost, which is a permanently subsoil limits the rooting depths of plant and forces the soil. Grows in sedges, dwarf shrubs, lichens, mosses, dwarf birch, Labrador tea and cinquefoil. It produces up to 227 to 454 kilograms per acre. It is grown is soil that are wet and can be well drained loamy with permafrost and ice. During the summer, where the daylight is very long, it has intense growing seasons. It grows mostly roots, berries, leaves, and seeds grow during that period. It has upland, which have poorly drained clayey soil. Shores and Lake Area provide many habitats for the organisms. The distribution of the permanently frozen subsoil may severely damage this fragile ecosystem. Most of the habitat survives from hibernation and migration. The precipitation is spread evenly during the year because of the 20-30 cm of rain that spreads on the flat grounds in areas of poor drainage, which becomes swampy during the summer months.

There are 2,500 kinds of lichens growing in the arctic which there are algae and fungus is presented. The number of plants is very few and the growth is low and most of the biomass concentrates on the roots. Its growing season is shorts and it's likely to grow very few. All of the plants have adapted to sweeping winds and disturbance of the soil. The plants are short and group together to resist the cold temperature and are protected by the snow during the winter season. They can carry photosynthesis to live at low temperature and at low light intensities. There are well known animals that are now living there because they have adapted in that area and they can provide for their needs there too. A few examples that have adapted to living here are the arctic fox and the polar bear. The arctic tundra is the coldest of all biomes with temperatures averaging below zero degrees. There are many habitats that have adapted to the area or have lived some place else because of its freezing temperature. Do to its cold temperature and very less rainfall, the plants do not grow very much. The environment is located at the top of the latitude. It has an unusual daylight during the seasons and part of the temperature is affected by the sunlight being away from the area during the winter with about only an hour of sunlight a day. During the summer where there is about 24 hours of sunlight, the heat melts the frozen particles that were left from the winter and causes it to make a lot of things look like slush especially the soil use to grow plants. The sun melts the permafrost away. That is one of the big factors why plants don't grow much here in the arctic. Different lifestyles have occurred here for the animals and the plants. The reason is to survive the cold temperature. Some animals migrate to other places and plants use the soil or bundle together. This is an extreme place. Covering 20% of the Earth's surface, it covers most of the northern part of the earth. A reason for that is because of the sun facing the different axis of the earth. The arctic is located in the northern axis. Its cold because the sun is facing the southern axis which causes the northern to be cold and the southern to be hot. When the sun faces the north axis, the sun will make the tundra warm but due to its cold temperature, the sun will not make it hot. Same goes to the southern axis.

Written by David Nguyen

Arctic Tundra

  1. Introduction:
    1. Me and my group did our project on the arctic tundra biome. (show map)
    2. Arctic tundra is located in the Northern Hemisphere in the arctic region.
    3. It is around the North Pole area and it covers part of Greenland, Alaska, Canada, and Russia.
    4. This biome cover 1/5 of earth's land surface.
    5. This arctic is known for its cold.
    6. It is the coldest and driest biome in earth.
    7. The average winter temperature is -34C and the average summer temperature is 3-12C.
    8. Yearly precipitation is around 15 to 25 cm.
  2. Description: (show poster) describe poster. Describe the plants, animals, birds and invertebrates.
    1. Animals: -
      1. Arctic fox
        1. Live in arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America.
        2. Body is 46-68 cm long, tail 35 cm long
        3. 1 of six of the tundra animal that eats birds, lemmings, marine life, and any leftover animals.
        4. Have well-furred paws, small round ears, and white fur.
        5. Reproduce every May or June. Have a litter of 4-11 puppies.
      2. Polar bear
        1. Eat fresh meat such as salmon, seals, and birds. Also eats berries and eggs.
        2. They can smell food 20 miles away.
        3. Eat more then 90 pound of food a day.
        4. Has white fur that help blend into their snowy surroundings.
      3. Musk ox
        1. live in Northern Canada, Greenland, Northern Europe and Asia, Scandinavia, Siberia, and Alaska.
        2. Belong to the bear family.
        3. 1.9 to 2.3 m body size. Tail 9 to 10 cm long.
        4. Has long shaggy hair that keeps them warn in the subzero temperature.
        5. When breed only 1 young at a time.
      4. Golden eagle
        1. Probably the most numerous large eagles in the world.
        2. Have huge feet with long curved claws, a hooked bill and sharp-sighted eyes.
        3. When hunting, the eagle soars for long periods searching for prey, then makes a rapid dive down to seize and kill the animal with its talons.
    2. Plants, vegetation
      1. lichen
      2. grows on rock
        1. made of fungus and algae living and growing together.
      3. dwarf willow
        1. small tundra shrubs.
        2. A cushion plant that grow in low, tight clumps
        3. Protect them from cold -Birds
    3. Conclusion:
      1. This is all the information we have collected on out biome.
      2. And this is the diorama we did on our biome.
      3. (talk about diorama)
  3. Reference:
    1. http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/web/tundra.html

Presented by Jing Liang

Grassland Biome

Biomes is a place where animals and plants live. The Biome my group has is Grassland. Grasslands can be located all around the world. One specific place where you can find the Biome Grassland is the Great Plains of North America and also Grasslands are found in every continent except Antarctica. Grasslands are very open and empty with flat areas of grass. The grasses can be 25cm to 165cm tall, with the roots going down to 75 to 150cm deep in the ground. The grass length is depended on the rainfall it receives. The Grasslands receive 50 to 90cm of rain per year, unlike the Desert Biome which only receives 30cm and less per year. That can seem very small compared to the Tropical Forest Biome which has 200cm rainfall per year. Some of the organism that you can find in the Grasslands are the bird called buzzard and the brown longearad bat and a bug called common dor beetle. Those are just some of the many organism in Grasslands. Grasslands is one of the most peaceful Biomes in the world.

The Grasslands are very grassy and has a lot of dirt and soil and trees, it's very similar to the Desert Biome. It does not rain much in the Grassland so there is barely any water cycle happening during the year. Grassland have an average rainfall compared to other Biomes. Grasslands are between Tropical Rainforest and the Desert in rainfall averages in the year. The Grassland are often called the breadbaskets of the world because its soil and land are where the farms are at which grow the nutrient food everybody eats.

The plants in the Grassland Biome are very beautiful will bright colors with a lot of pollen. A lot of plants in the Grassland Biomes are in a lot of gardens in peoples backyards. Here are some plants from the Grassland Biomes milkweed flower, a blazingstar flower that can be has tall has up to up to 152cm. Another plant is a purple coneflower these plants can also be seen in peoples yards. An aster plant is also in the Grassland Biome that has a very bright color of purple. The stinging needle plant looks like a normal plant from for away but when you go up close and touch it with your bare hands you will get a stinging pain by the plant. This plant can grow up to 91.2cm.

Most animals in the Grassland Biomes are big and strong animals like the Elephant who eats up to 440 pounds of food a day. Its diet may include up to leaves, shoots, twigs, roots, and fruits. The other animal is another very big animal which is the bison which was very close to extinction by the European settlers in the early twentieth century. There are now over 20,000 bison in the Grasslands thanks to the American Bison Society. The male may be as much as 2.9m at the shoulders, which are humped and covered with the shaggy, brownish-black fur that also grows thickly on the head, neck and forelegs. The girls looks similar to the guys but is smaller; young are more reddish-brown. The giraffe is a the tallest animal in the Grasslands. The giraffe can be 14 feet tall. The giraffe goes with 6 to 12 other giraffes in herd maybe even more. The lion is a splendid, powerfully built cat, the lion has a broad head, thick, strong legs and a long tail tipped with a tuft of hair that conceals a claw-like spine. The color of the lion varies to tawny yellow to reddish brown. The lion spends 20 or more hours a resting. They live in groups, known as prides, consisting of up to 3 adult males and up to 15 females and their young in a territory that is defended against intruders, particularly other mature male lions.

So in conclusion the Grassland Biome is very open and empty with plants and tall grasses with tons of great animals. The Grassland does not have much of a water supply, but when it does rain that's when the animals are most active. The Grasslands plants are very colorful and bright. The plants you see in the Grassland you can also see in peoples yards. The animals in the Biome are very big like the lions, the bison, the giraffes, and the elephants. The Grasslands are probably the most peaceful Biome in the world.

Written by John Bombita

Grasslands

Presenter's Outline

Good evening class I am Derell. my group Foshow Lil Daddy did our Biome on grassland. We choose grassland because we all felt we didn't no a lot about that Biome. Looking up grassland wasn't easy we had to search a lot of sites to get all the Information that we got.

  1. Locations
    1. Uruguay
    2. South Africa
    3. Argentina
  2. Temperature's and Rainfall
    1. summer38OC
    2. 5-10 meters of rain a year
    3. winter40OC
  3. Animals
    1. African elephants
    2. lions
    3. zebras
    4. deer
  4. Plants
    1. Tomentosa
    2. Polyphyllum
    3. Lotus Corniculatus
  5. Web sites to locate Biome
    1. www.yahoo.com
    2. www.fastsearch.com
    3. www.google.com
    4. search engine

Presented by Derell Young

Desert

Dry, sandy, and hot, those are few best words that best describe the desert biome. This biome is located in several areas throughout the world. This biome is located in several areas throughout the world. Some of the major deserts are located in different countries like North America, Saharan, Iranian, Turkestan, Takla Makan-Gobi, Thar, Atacams, Patagonian, Namib, Kalahari, and Austrialian. To just name a few mammals that lives in the desert are antelopes, armadillo, bilby, red fox, fennec fox, great jerboa, mouse tailed bat, and many more. The desert is not like any other biomes or places it is extremely hot and it only receive an average of less than 25cm of precipitation a year. As for temperatures though it may be exceed to 82C on summer or higher in the afternoons but it can dip to 20-30 degrees or more at night.

Like I said before it does not rain very much compare to the other biomes. It only rains 25cm once a year. When it rains the plants absorbs all the water it can, like the cacti who store its water in their stems and use it very slowly, and the bushes who use the water from the plants that has absorb the water from the rain. Also unlike the other biomes, the deserts can have very mild winters while the other has freezing winters. The desert is also of course the driest of all and it only gets 10 percent of rainfall that the rainforest gets.

The plants in the desert is able to survive in the desert is because that they have adaptations. Adaptations are the certain type of behavior the plants has to keep them survives. Most plants have two abilities and they area to be able to collect water and store them. The other one is that it has features that reduce water loss. Like the barrel cactus, which has pleats that let it expand when it rains, and store the water in its spongy tissue.

It can also shrink in size during times that it is drying as it uses the water being stored. Another example is the ocotillo that has stomata, which is the little holes underneath the side of a leaf that is able to let air get into the plants. Other plants that are similar to the ocotillo plants has very small leaves and therefore it has very few stomata and that makes sure of it that the water inside the plants would not be evaporating so fast. Many plants have a waxy surface to soothe and pain of bums.

Life in the desert for the animal is obvious pretty complicate with the lack of water and the high temperatures. In order for them to stay alive they would have to avoid the heat. Some animals in the desert like the kangaroo rat, red fox, fennec fox, rattle snakes spends most of their time underground and some only come out to eat and hunt at night are called the nocturnal. As for smaller mammals and reptiles they are only active at dusk again at dawn, which is called crepuscular.

Overall the desert would not be a good place to live at since it is a pretty intense area to live, it is very hot and dry. Also in a way it is very interesting being able to understand more how the animals can live in the deserts surviving. It is one of the challenges that the animal has to face through in the desert. They are fighting to survive in the tough life in the desert. The desert is located in several areas and it is mostly located near the equator. In closure the desert has intense heat than the other biomes and I am sure that without much water out there I will not be able to stand the climate out there.

Written by Helen Tran

Tropical Rain Forest

Our world has nine different interesting biomes, includes tundra, grassland, tropical rain forest, ocean, dessert, Savannah, temperate rain forest, deciduous forest and coniferous forest. My group mates and I are researching about tropical rain forests in the world. Tropical rain forests are found mostly near the equator because of its hot temperature and wet, rainy seasons. There are several main regions and countries that have the biome of tropical rain forest, that includes Brazil, Philippines, Central America, Indonesia, countries around Cuba, Gabon, Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, eastern India and Malaysia. Tropical rain forest is mostly covered up by tropical trees and a body of water surrounding the land. The environment there is really hot that the temperature is 20 to 35OC high. There are many animals living in this environment, some main ones includes tigers, jaguars, snakes, monkey, birds, etc. Some typical organisms includes humming birds, jaguars, and toucans. Tropical rain forests has a very high rate of rain fall each year, annually it has over 256 cm of rain fall.

The tropical rain forest, also known as selva, is the earth's most complex biome in terms of both structure and species diversity. It occurs under optimal growing conditions: abundant precipitation and year round warmth. There is no annual rhythm to the forest; rather each species has evolved its own flowering and fruiting seasons. Sunlight is a major limiting factor since all the trees needs it to grow and spread out the land. Tropical rain forest's monthly temperatures are above 25C; precipitation is often over 256cm per year. There is usually a brief season of reduced precipitation. In some areas, there is a real dry season, but that is more than compensated for with abundant precipitation the rest of the year. Tropical Rain Forests have a layered structure with the middle layer forming a canopy of intertwined branches. Tall trees are above the canopy up to 45m. There is a lower layer of shade-tolerant trees, but the forest floor is open due the fact that little sunlight reaches the forest floor. Many trees have leaves with drip tips that channel the water off the leaves. The soils are not high in nutrients because the trees, plants and other organisms holds most of the nutrients. The forest's water cycle is basically the same as other areas, where the ocean water is being evaporated by sun light and becomes water vapor, then vapor rises and condenses and eventually forms a cloud that can't hold anymore vapor, and water drops begin to fall in different forms known as precipitation, that includes rain, drizzle, snow, hail, sleet, and fog. But this region's rain fall was higher because it's very hot there and the ocean eventually evaporates more than normal regions, that's why the rain fall in that area is much higher.

There are tons of typical plants and trees found in this biome. There are over 180 kinds of trees in tropical rain forest and all of them are extremely tall and receives much nutrients from the soil. Various growth forms represent strategies to reach sunlight, and some of the examples of these trees includes epiphytes, lianas, climbers, stranglers, and heterotrophs. There are common characteristics of tropical trees. Tropical species frequently possess one or more of the following attributes not seen in trees of higher latitudes. Some common ones are buttresses, large leaves, and drip tips. The tree branches are tangled up and the trees are surviving by receiving sun lights from sun, water source from ocean, and nutrients from soil. Also within this biome, there are typical animals such as tigers, jaguars, monkey, snakes, These animals usually hunts other animals for food and lives in the forest. Monkey eats fruits that grew on trees and birds will find worms to eat. Many animals live in the dense vegetation of tropical rain forests. More species of reptiles, amphibians, and birds are found in the tropical rain forest than in any other terrestrial biome. Although large animals like the gorillas and cougars are the ground dwellers of the rain forest. Most rain forest organisms live up in the trees rather than on floors the forest. Butterflies and all the other insects are by far the most numerous organisms in the rain forest. Some estimate that there may be as many as 3 million species of insects in the tropical rain forest.

Tropical rain forest is the most unique biome in world because of its environment, typical life forms, rare organisms, tall plants, and temperature. It is a very interesting biome to research on because of its juicy facts, fascinating sites, environment, and scenarios. In this wet, hot environment, you will be able to see a large forest with lots of animals, birds, and plants. With all of these interesting facts, that's what makes tropical rain forest unique and lots of things to learn from.

Written by Calvin Yao

Tropical Rain Forest

  1. Introduction:
    1. Hi, everybody. We are going to have a lesson about Tropical Rain Forest. Today. You guys might heard or know about it. But let's go more deeper on it. Let me introduce our group member before we move on. The Writer is Mr. Yao. Artist 1 is Mr. Chen. Artist 2 is Mr. Tang. The presenter is me, Jeff.
  2. Detail about the topic:
    1. Tropical rainforests are the result of the unique climatic conditions found between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, in the regions north and south of Earth's equator. It Is a complex place. The large areas of rainforest are in Central Africa and South America. The one we mostly research are the tropical rain forests in Brazil.
    2. The average temperature is between 20 and 35 CO
    3. The annual rainfall is 256 cm.
  3. Plants
    1. There are 180 kinds of trees in the rainforest.
    2. Brazil Nut Tree
      1. The typical plane is Brazil nut tree, which 4.5 m tall. It produces hard, woody, cannon-ball sized fruits which can contain up o 20 hard-shelled nuts. Also, Brazil nut tree need lots of light to grow. The young plane need forest clearing which a wide area to grow, no high tree around, just some grass around it, to survive. You won't see a Brazil nut tree without forest clearing.
    3. Fig Tree
      1. The another plane we did is fig tree. They are 900 different kinds in the world. It is 120 feet tall. It has buttress roots, thick leathery leaves, and produces a prolific supply of soft green to yellow fruits about an inch wide.
  4. Animals
    1. Jaguar
      1. The typical animal we searched is jaguar, which is the largest cat in the Brazil and Americas. It can be found in many habitats, but prefers riverbanks, where it usually sleeps by day and hunts by dusk or night. Jaguar can climb and swim. They are predators. They hunt the floor animals and climb animals. Its favorite hunting strategy is to lie in wait in branches and pounce on its victim.
    2. Bearded Pig
      1. Another animal we did is bearded pig. Its body 21/4-6ft,tail 21/4-47/4 in, a large animals. The bearded pig has whiskers on chin and bristly. Fallen fruit, roots, shoots and insect larvae are the bearded pig's main foods, and it also invades fields of root crops. They also pick up the drop fruit from trees. After a gestation of about 4 months, the female makes a nest of plant material and gives birth to 2 or 3 young. Actually, they just follow their mother 1 year. After 1 year, they will leave alone.
    3. Turcan
      1. Turcan have long color beaks. They adapt for fruit-eating. They built their nest in holes high in trees. Turcan, a week flyer, can't fly long distance. They always hop among trees branches and find the fruits for eating. The seeds of some forest plants can only be successfully germinated after passing through the digestive tract of animals like the toucan.
    4. Blue Bird
      1. The male blue bird has a soft black breast and long, lacy flank plumes. His distinctive tail feathers, are narrow and strap like and play an important part in the display dance he performs to attract the much plainer female. The male hangs upside down from a branch, and spread out their wing. In this position, he swings to and fro, all the while making a strange, grating call. A nest is made by the female in a low tree, and she is thought to lay 1 egg. They eat fruit.
    5. Amry Ants
      1. There are over 200 different kinds of amry ants exist in the world. They don't to fix the nest, because they will move to different areas in the forest during raid, which seize by others. They have different groups, single, large, fertile female, the queen. The queen, have no wings, produce 30,000 or more in 2 days. Only male amry have wings, they periodically leave the colony to search for other queens. Their favorite hunting is on the forest floor, killing other insects, small lizards, and small mammals. Also, they will climb trees, killing tree insects, baby birds in their nests. But they can't hunt the fast insects, because they move slowly, the insects will escape.
    6. Summary:
      1. Tropical rainforest is a part of biome. It rains a lots, a wet warm place. There are many different types of animals, planes ,insect live there. Also the temperature there is high because of near the equator, and that's what it make it unique. Also, if you still want to know more about it. You can go to www.passporttoknownledge.com, click the rainforest then you will see many information about our topic.

Presented by Jeff Huang