Animal Kingdom Essays:

Wardah Asaba
David Bituin
Jing Chen
Johnson Chen
Johnson Chen Rewrite
Jeffrey Cheng
Lori Cheng
Lori Cheng - Rewrite
Joseph Chiang
Kura Cohen
Kura Cohen Revision 1
Stacey Davis
Justin Geeter
Jeff Huang
Jeremy Hui
Keithrie Jennings
Christina Khalil
Christina Khalil Revision 1
May Dan Kuang
Rowena Kumar
Rowena Kumar - Rewrite
Jenny Lam
Jacky Lao
Johnny Li
Jing Liang
Dennis Lim
Diana Merino
Cherry Ann Mendoza
Ashley Mooring
David Nguyen
Nancy Nguyen
Mina Pan
Jessica Ramos
David Ross
Sam Tang
Lanishia Thomas
Bich Ha Tran
Helen Tran
Diana Uriarte
Michael Vo
Brandon Williams
Kenny Wong
Peter Wong
Calvin Yao
Calvin Yao - Rewrite
Peter Yee
Danny Yu
Danny Yu - Rewrite
Pei Xian Yu

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Similarities and Differences of The Animal Kingdom

November 11, 2001

Wardah Asaba

There are different kinds of organism each has their own kingdom. One of which I know of is the animal kingdom. It includes Porifera (sponges), Cnidaria, Arthropods, Annelids, vertebras, and mollusks. All the Phylum have differences and similarities between them. Many living creature have a unique way of surviving which include food and how they get it what to use for protection and etc. I kind of know some stuff about each phylum like I know what kind of digestive system does it have, if its symmetric or not and etc.

Sponge are symmetrical within its shape it has a dead-end digestive system also indicates that its a choanocytes which means to capture or uses and it anchored in one spot. Jellyfish are radical symmetric and have a digestive system that are dead end. Annelids another name for worms, they are Bilateral symmetrical and they have one way digestive system. Also mollusks stands for a phylum is the arthropods they are Bilateral symmetry and have shells like the clams. Another phylum is the Arthropods they are Bilateral symmetry and have jointed appendages. Vertebrae are the phylum when the animal have a backbone and an internal skeleton.

Looking between the phylum their a lot which have in common like the jellyfishes and sponges. Some of things that are different was about them are that the sponges are shaped as a symmetrical and jellyfishes are radical symmetrical. One of the main thing that I realize was it is totally different how they get their food and Jellyfishes are neumatocytes so they sting their prey with neurotoxins. One of the similarities between both of them are that they have a dead - end digestive system. And the difference between Arthropods and vertebrae is that the arthropods have exoskeletons and vertebrae has a backbone and an internal skeleton also have jointed appendages . And the similarities are that both are bilateral and are coelom.. The different things between Arthropods and Vertebrae are that Arthropods are segmented, has a head, jointed appendages, and it is a exoskeleton also Vertebrae has a backbone, internal skeleton, and has a body cavity. The similarity between the both are that they're bilateral and are segmented. The next comparison is going to be between Annelids and Mollusks differences are that Annelids has a body cavity and the similarity are that both is bilateral, and has one-way digestive system. So those are some of the differences between the phylum.

David Bituin

During the past weeks we have been studying different phylum. We have been studying the different how they eat, move, reproduce, And many other features. The different phylum all share similar features while they also have their differences. There are 6 different phylum that make up the animal kingdom. They range in shapes and sizes and whether or not they are stationary.

The Sponge could possibly be the simplest of the entire phylum. It is anchored in one spot and it is asymmetrical. No other phylum is asymmetrical making the sponge also unique. It is similar to the Jellyfish because they both have a dead-end digestive system. It is also different from all the other phylum because it doesn't have any classes. It eats by filtering the water and taking in the food and digests the food later after it has filtered it.

The Cnidaria or the Jellyfish is the only phylum with radial symmetry because of its round shape. Like the sponge the jellyfish has a dead-end digestive system. It has pneumatocytes, which are used to sting the prey, so it is able to digest its prey. The pneumatocytes is like a neuro-toxin. The jellyfish is a free roaming phylum so it is able to move around. The jellyfish has class hydrozoa and sea anemones.

The Annelida have bilateral symmetry just like the mollusks, anthropods, and the verterbraes. The annelids also have a one-way digestive system like other phylum. It has a segmented anterior with 8 hearts in each. It also has a body cavity. The different classes of annelids are the earthworm, which has a anterior that is fatter than the posterior. It lives on land and is a detritivore, The other class is the Polychaetes, which lives in the ocean and has segments and is a carnivore.

The Mollusks are also bilateral like the annelids. They have a good nervous system. They also have a one-way digestive system. They have a coelom like the anthropods and the vertebrates. The classes of mollusks are the bivalves, which have two valves, which the name suggests. It has 2 shells and 3 layers also. It has a mantle and it lives in the water. It has gills and abductor muscles. It has an excurrent and incurrent siphon, which no other phylum has. There are the gastropods, which live in land and ocean. It has one shell and one foot. There are also the cephalopods, which has tentacles a foot that can either be a sucker or hook.

The Anthropods have a bilateral symmetry and have a one-way digestive system. It also has a coelom. It is segmented and has a head. It has jointed appendages and an exoskeleton. The anthropods are known to have the most legs unlike any other phylum. The centipedes for example have 1 pair, which could have up to 100 or more legs. The anthropods are the only phylum to have 3 body parts, which are the head, abdomen, and the thorax.

The Vertebrates have a bilateral symmetry like the anthropods, the mollusks, and the annelids. It has a one-way digestive system like the three phylum as well. It also has a coelom. Unlike any of the other phylum the verterbraes have a backbone and an internal skeleton. The classes of the vertebrates are the amphibians, which breathe through skin and dry out easily and have simple lungs. The reptiles have thick skin or scales and have a stronger skeleton. Their lungs are also very developed. Mammals have fur or hair and are warm-blooded and have very developed lungs. They are the only class out of the phylum, which produce milk and have internal fertilization. Birds have feathers and have very developed lungs. Fish have scales and gills and are cold blooded with no limbs.

This shows that all the phylum have differences and similarities. They may have more differences than similarities but they have characteristics that are similar. This shows that all the phylum are not all different and shows that they have advanced while still keeping some of the same traits.

Jing Chen

In this unit called Animal Kingdom, we discovered that there are many phylum and classes of the animals. We did some experiments in class and took the notes. We dissected the animal to find out more characteristics about the animals and to understand more about different animals. The external structures of animals form by different shapes. We dissected the animals to see their internal structure, there are some similar and differences between different animals. After each dissection, I learned many things that I never know before about the animals. The Animal Kingdom is one of the main courses to study. In addition, it is complicated, because some animals have the nervous system, it is complex. The lowest level called sponges. It is the easiest phylum to recognize. The sponges live in the sea mostly. They anchored in one spot like the plants, but the animals do not do that, that is why most people misunderstand that sponges are plant instead of animal. They get the dead-end digestive, which means they eat the food and excreted from the same place. They capture food with the choanocyte cilia. There is
no class with sponges.

Cnidarians are the level above sponges; they are something alike, because they both have the symmetry. However, the symmetries are different, cnidarians got the radial symmetry, and they got the tissues. They capture food with their pheumatocyte. They have two classes; jellyfish and sea anemones. The shape of jellyfish is like an umbrella and they are free floating. The other class usual stuck up side down on the rocks, little bit as the sponges stuck in one spot.

The next phylum called annelids. They got the bilateral symmetry and segmented. The annelids got the different digestive than the other two phyla above, which is one way digestive. That means that all the food goes to different place than the waste product. They have the body cavity. Annelids categorized into three classes, the earthworm, polychaetes, and clamworms. Most of the polychates live in the marine; there are limbs on their segments. The earthworms live in the land, and they got the fatter anterior. The segments of the clam worms are arrange. They are longer than other two classes.

The mollusks are the only phylum of coelomade without segment bodies; they got the symmetry as the annelids do. In addition, they got the one-way digestive system. The mollusks have good nervous system and cell. They also got the visceral mass, foot and head for the distinct systems. That is one of the differences from the annelids obviously. The mollusks categorized into three classes, bivalves, gastropods and cephalopods. The bivalves (clam) have two valves and three layers. The gastropods (stomach foot) mostly like snails. They live on land. The last class got tentacle and arms or foot. They live in marine.

Arthropods got the bilateral symmetry, too, and one-way digestive system. Their bodies are segment, head and two more thing that haven¡¦t appear from the phyla above, they are jointed appendages, and exoskeletons. The arthropods have more classes than other phyla. They got seven classes- millipedes, have two pairs of legs for each segment; sea spider; centipedes, one pair of legs for each segment (about 100 legs); insects, have the complex, and most diverse, and three body parts; arachnids, are carnivores, and have three body parts and eight legs; crustaceans, have the thick exoskeleton; and horseshoe crabs. All of them can walk.

Last but no lease, we have vertebrates. This phylum got the bilateral symmetry, and one-way digestive system, but there is something that is not from above, they got backbones and internal skeleton. There are five classes in vertebrates; amphibians, reptiles, avian (bird), mammal, and fish. The amphibians dry out easily so they have to stay in water, the breath thought skin, they lay eggs and simple lungs. The reptiles have the thick skin, and stronger skeleton. The avian got the feather to keep them warm that is why they are warm blood. The mammal got the hair instead of feather, they also warm blood, and they are the only class, which produce milk. The last class, fish, has scale and gills. They are cold blood, and lay eggs.

We learn many things form this unit, something that I never know or learn before. It is somewhat hard for me to understand all of them, but I learned some now. There are some things that they have in common, but lots differences. It was somewhat nauseated to dissect the animals such as frogs and the earthworms. However, we did learn lot from the dissections. We know that there are not only lungs inside of them, also the nervous systems and the earthworms have eight hearts. Different phyla have different characteristics and classes. This is the most complex group and it is difficult, too.

Johnson Chen

In the last until, we learn about the animal Kingdom. In the class I learn a lot new knowledge about the animal kingdom. And I feel the animal's body is kind of apprehend, because their body is ugly, it makes you utter. And also we had finish some lad during the until, like Sponges, Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, Vertebras.

In the Annelids, there is a class call earthworm. Also we did a lab on The worm too, the main characteristic of the segmented worm is the external and the internal division of the body into segments. The worm has a body of about 150 segment and it also has a sharply reduced head. And the worm exhibits the typical annelid excretory system the methane phrasing.

The Cnidarians (jellyfish), the jellyfish are the dead end system. When The jellyfish try to catch the food, and it will using their "leg" to faint The food and move the food to the top of the body, because their mouth are In the above their head. When the jellyfish turn the body the upside down It call the sea anemones, because it looks like a anemones.

The mollusks, all the mollusks are one-way digestive system and there had a good Nervous The there is some classes, like snails, gastropods, cephalopods. And all Are living in the land, ocean, fresh water, and most of them had shell.

The vertebras, are the one-way digestive system, they had the internal skeleton, And it there is some class in it, like amphibians, reptiles, Aries(bird) Mammals and fish. The amphibians are dry out easily layers. And most fish Kind of scales, gill, and they blood is cold. The they eggs are lay eggs.

In the until I had learn a lot about the animal kingdom. And It is fun And I can see a lot new stuff are going on.

Johnson Chen Rewrite

In the last until, we learn about the animal Kingdom. In the class I learn a lot about the animal kingdom. And I feel the animals body is kind of apprehend, because their body is ugly, it makes you utter. And also we had finish some lad during the until, like Sponges, Cnidarians,Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, Vertebras.

The Annelids,they move by detecting its light source.They have bilateral symmetry, because you could see the anterior and posterior very clearly shown on its body structure. And they have a shaped body, they are the one-way digestive system. there is a heart in which of the segments expect for the anterior and digestive parts, because they need room for it. The cnidarians (jellyfish), the jellyfish are the dead end system. they live under water. And they float around in the water. They have a radial symmetry system. and it just like the sponges, everything comes the same way as the out way. when the jellyfish turn their body up side down it calls sea annemies. The mollusks, all the mollusks are one-way D.S and they live under the ocean and lands. and they had a bilateralo symmetry shaped body. mollusks have body cavity and have a ture coemlom. They also have a more advance nervous on it's sied. In the shells, there are three body parts: foot head and visceral mass. In the mollusk there is a class name"clams" they have three layer called the organic layer, middle layer and the mother layer. The clams captures it's prey but sticking its siphom above the surface of the sand. As the water comes, it uses its siphom to suck in the water. When the water is suck in, it separates the food from the water.

The vertebras, are the one-way D.S, they had the internal skeleton,And it there is some class in it, like amphibians, reptiles, Aries(bird)Mammals and fish. The amphibians are dry out easily layers. And most fish Kind of scales, gill, and they blood is cold. The they eggs are lay eggs.

The anthropods, it have most claases. It found in any where of your life. It had a one-way system and it had a bilateral symmetry. IT also had segmented body. Anthropods have jouned appendages . Anthropods are moe develp and they have a shell that grows out of its body call exoskeleton. and it have a total of seven different classes. Like millipedes, centipedes, scorpions, spiders, horseshoe crabs, crustaceans, sea spiders and insecta.

In the until I had learn a lot about the animal kingdom. The most intersesting thing about this unial are the calls and the different group.And It is fun. And I can see a lot new stuff are going on.

Jeffrey Cheng

Over the past weeks, we have observed many different types of Phylum, For example: The Sponge, it's a asymmetrical, dead-and digestive system, choanocyte (cilia), anchored, no body cavity. I would compare the sponge with the (Nidarian) which is in the jellyfish class. The first similarity between the sponge, Jellyfish (Nidarian) is the both the sponge and the Jellyfish (Nidarian) has dead end digestive system, and difference between them is that the Jellyfish (Nidarian) and the Sponge is that it has a (asymmetrical) and the Jellyfish (Nidarian) has a radial symmetrical. A Nidarian has a couple of description that would easily describe the Nidarian and they are: Float, bellshape, translocent (Upsidedown Jellyfish) not clear, attached to rocks.

Another Class I would Compare and contrast is the Annelids (worms) the Annelids have a bilateral symmetry one-way digestive system, distinctive head and posterior, body cavity, which is in the Earthworm class. I would compare this with the Mollusk, which is in the Bivalves class. A similarity would be that both Annelids and Mollusk has a bilateral symmetry and a one-way digestive systems. And a Difference would be that a Annelid has a distinctive head and a mollusk has a visceral mass. Some description for the mollusk is that it has 2 shells (values)-3 layers, siphone gills mantle, abductive muscles planktawors (omnivores) hinge ligament, that was the description for the mollusk, and here is the description for the Annelids, it has Detritarvores, no limbs, land marine, limbs on ligament, carnivores.

So in conclusion the animal kingdom may have many classes but it also has many differences and of course similarities because it did come from the same root. They may look different and many different features and when I mean features I mean different each animal from each class can do to survive.

Lori Cheng

When you think of the word "animal", the first thing that pops into your head are warm blooded animals. Most people do think that. Actually, the animal kingdom is divided into six phylums: sponges, cnidarians (jelly fish), annelids (worms), mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrates. Within these phylums, are the different classes of each group. Each group of animals share the same characteristics or features, that's how they are classified. Even though they are all different, some do share the same characteristics. In the following paragraphs, you will learn more about each phylum and their characteristics. Also, you will see the similarities between each group.

The first phylum is the sponges. They have an asymmetrical body, which means they are not symmetrical. Sponges have a dead-end digestive system, which means they take in their food and dispose their waste from the same hole or body part. One thing that makes sponges stand out from other animals is that they do not contain body organs. Another thing is that they are anchored to the ground. So basically, they have to wait until food comes to them. Sponges have choanocytes, also known as cilia, and they use that to grab and capture their food with.

The second phylum is the cnidarians (jelly fish). They have a radical symmetry, which is circular. That is how their body is shaped. They, like the sponges have a dead-end digestive system. These animals have tentacles, which they use to capture food with. That is another thing they have in common with the sponges, they both have something to capture food with Within those tentacles are pheumatocytes or stingers and they contain neurotoxin. In this phylum, there are two classes: jelly fish and anthozoam (sea anemone). Jellyfishes have a clear, bell shaped body and they float. On the other hand, sea anemones are an upside down jellyfish. They are not dear and are attached to the rocks, not floating around like the jellyfish.

The third phylum is the annelids (worms). They have a bilateral symmetry, and a one-way digestive system, which means they eat through their mouth and waste comes out through their anus. The head region of annelids is called the anterior, and the end is called the posterior. Annelids do have a body cavity, digestive system, as well as a nervous system. There are two classes: earthworms and Polychaeta. The earthworms are detritivores; they eat decomposed things in the mud (they take it all in, including the mud). They are terrestrial and have no limbs, where the polychaets do. They have limbs on each of its segments. They're also marine animals and are carnivores.

The fourth phylum is the mollusks. They have a bilateral symmetry and a one-way digestive system, like the annelids. Mollusks have a three-part body plan: the foot, the visceral mass, and the head. They also are the first group of animals to have developed a coelom, which is a fluid and filled body cavity that is developed within the mesoderm. This group is separated into three classes: bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods. Bivalves, like the clam have two shells or valves and three layers. These animals are omnivores (planktavores), and have a mantle, abductor muscles, siphons and gills. An example of a gastropod is snails and they live anywhere. Obviously, they have one shell and also include gills and lungs. The last class is cephalopod and an example of that are squids and octopuses. They have gills like the rest of them and a mantle like the clams. These animals are the only ones in this phylum that have arms, tentacles and suckers.

The fifth phylum is the arthropods. They, like the annelids and mollusks have both a bilateral symmetry and a one-way digestive system. Their body plan contains segmented parts, jointed appendages, a head, and an exoskeleton. This phylum has the largest number of classes out of the six phylums. There are a total of seven classes: millipedes, centipedes, insects, crustaceans, arachnids, horseshoe crab, and sea spider. The millipedes are similar to the centipedes except that millipedes have two pairs of legs on each segment instead of one, which the centipedes have. Also millipedes are herbivores and centipedes are carnivores. The next class is the insects and their body has three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They have six legs on the thorax. Crustaceans have legs on the thorax and abdomen. An example of an arachnid is a spider and they have eight legs and 2-part body: head and abdomen. Arachnids are carnivores, like the centipedes. The horseshoe crab gets its named from its horseshoe shaped head. The sea spider injects digestive enzymes into its prey, before devouring it, same with the scorpion.

The last phylum is the vertebrates. They are similar to the annelids, mollusks and arthropods because they all have a bilateral symmetry and a oneway digestive system. They also have a coelom like the mollusks. All vertebrates have a spinal cord. Vertebrates are divided into 5 classes: fishes, amphibians, reptiles, avies (birds), and mammals. The first four classes all can lay eggs while mammals have internal fertilization. Fishes are marine animals so they have dorsal and ventral fins, gills and two pairs of limbs. Amphibians and reptiles are both cold-blooded animals. Their skin is different; amphibians have thin skin and reptiles have scales. Avies and mammals are warm-blooded animals. Mammals have fur or hair and produce milk. Avies have feathers and two pairs of limbs.

As you can see, the animal kingdom is divided into many different classes and species. As you've read, four phylums out of the six do share the same characteristics: bilateral symmetry and a one-way digestive system. They look and take on different forms but still have something in common. Each group of animals has something that makes them an animal and not something else. So basically, the animal kingdom is made up of a diverse group of species.

Lori Cheng - Rewrite

The animal kingdom is divided into many different phyla, but we covered only six of them. They are the sponges, cnidarians (jelly fish), annelids (worms), mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrates. Within these phyla, the animals do share similar characteristics but they also have things that make them stand out from others. Like for instance, they may share the same body parts and/or structure, their digestive systems, how they get food, etc. What can make an animal stand out from others are their body shape or extra things they have in or attached to their bodies. Those aren't the only two things, there are many others as well. Further in, I will discuss some of these similarities and differences.

Sponges are the only animals within these six groups that have an asymmetrical body. Also, they are the only animals that don't have any organs. Even though cnidarians have a radical symmetry, they do have something in common with the sponges. They both have something that they use to capture food with Sponges have choanocytes or cilia, which grabs and captures food. Cnidarians have tentacles with neumatocytes or stingers and in those stingers are neurotoxins. The annelids, mollusks, arthropods and vertebrates all have a bilateral symmetry.

Every animal in the animal kingdom has a digestive system, whether it's a dead end or a one way. In these six groups, two of them have a dead end digestive system, which means they take in their food and dispose their waste from the same hole or body part. They are the sponges and the cnidarians The rest of them, the annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and the vertebrates have a one-way digestive system, which means they eat through their mouth and waste comes out through their anus.

Each animal's body plan is different from another, of course. Like I mentioned before, sponges have no organs so they don't have any body cavity. Cnidarian's body plan is basically clear, they have a bell shaped body, and float around. The annelids has two parts: the anterior which is the head and the posterior which is the back and they're also segmented. Mollusks consist of a apart body plan: the foot, the visceral mass, and the head. Arthropods are segmented, just like the annelids, they have jointed appendages, a head and a exoskeleton. All vertebrates have a spinal cord so they have a skeleton. You can see how no animal is the same as another.

Another thing sponges have in common with cnidarians are that they are anchored onto something. I did mention that jellyfishes do float but I'm talking about another species, which falls under cnidarians called sea anemones. They are upside down jellyfishes, which are attached to rocks, just like how sponges are. Also mollusks and vertebrates have a true coelom. One last thing that all of these animals within the groups have in common is that they are multicellular.

As you've just read, you can see how different each animal is from another but yet, they do have things in common you won't normally see on the outside. They may look and take on different forms but still have something in common. This whole unit was very interesting to me. We did many dissections of animals from a group in the animal kingdom so we could get a better sense of what their body is like. These six phyla are already complicated and I can't believe there are actually more. But I did learn a lot. So basically, the animal is made up of a diverse group of species.

Joseph Chiang

In the animal kingdom, all the creatures can be divided up by many different factors. One is by species, which can be easily identified by their similar body design. Another is by their position on the food chain. Creatures of the same species can also be on different positions on that chain. Finally, the members of each species can be separated by their phylum.

I only studied several different types of animals in the animal kingdom, so those are the only ones that I'm going to write about. One of the species is called sponges. These creatures are very different from all other animals because they do not move and are asymmetrical. The only similarity that allowed this creature to fit in the animal kingdom was the fact that could not produce its own energy. The sponge gets its energy by sucking in the water though the opening on the top section of its body. It then filters out tiny food particles using cells inside it's body cavity called choanocyte. The food particles are then absorbed directly into it's cells. After that, the waste particles leave through the same opening using the dead end digestive system. The sponge has no organs, teeth, and is asymmetrical.

The second species is called the cnidarians. These are split up into two main classes: jellyfish and sea anemone. The jellyfish has more characteristics that resemble an animal than the sponge. One major thing is that it can move, however slightly. Another is that the jellyfish would capture its prey, instead of filter it out of the water. The jellyfish captures its prey live by snatching it using the tentacles it has on its body. The tentacles are a form of limb, another improvement over the sponges. On each of the tentacles there are pneumatocytes, which are stingers that inject a neurotoxin into the victim. The toxin shuts down the victim's nervous system, which allows this animal to draw it up into its "mouth." After the jellyfish is done, the waste is tossed back out of the opening. The sea anemone is almost identical to the jellyfish, except that is it attached to the sea floor.

The next species is annelids. They are mostly detrivores, which are decomposers. Annelids have bilateral symmetry, demonstrating that they are one of the more advanced species in comparison to cnidarians and sponges. Because of their bilateral symmetry, they have a distinctive head and posterior, allowing them to have a one way digestive system. One member of the annelids is the polychaethes. Unlike the rest of the annelids, the polychaetes have limbs on each segment and are carnivores.

Mollusks are another species in the animal kingdom. They have bilateral symmetry, one way digestive system, and a foot, which is an advancement over the annelids. They have a head, a visceral mass, and a coelum. Mollusks are split into three main groups: bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods. The characteristics of bivalves are that they have two shells (valves), three layers for each shell, and have muscles. Gastropods have one shell and can be identified as the normal garden snail. They live almost everywhere. Cephalopods look slightly different from the other two classes. They are identified as squids and octopuses.

Arthropods are another species. These have many variations and classes. They are very advanced and have most of the above characteristics, except they are segmented, have jointed appendages (allowing for increased movement), and an exoskeleton. Some examples of arthropods are millipedes, centipedes, insects, crustaceans, arachnids, sea spiders, and horseshoe crabs. Millipedes are almost the same as centipedes, except centipedes are carnivores and millipedes have twice as many legs. Insects have six legs, a head, thorax and an abdomen. Crustaceans have legs attached to their thorax and abdomen and also have a head. Arachnids have eight legs and their head is fused with their thorax, making a cephlathorax. These creatures are carnivores. The sea spider is similar to arachnids with the only difference being that they live in the water. Horseshoe crabs are identified by their horseshoe shaped head.

The last group is called the vertebrates. They are the most advanced of the animal kingdom. They have bilateral symmetry, a one way digestive system, a coelom and also have a backbone. They are identified as fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. Fish, amphibians, and reptiles are cold-blooded and lay eggs. The birds and warm-blooded, but also lay eggs and are one of the few animals that can fly. The mammals have fur, are warm-blooded and birth live young.

In conclusion, members of the animal kingdom are extremely diverse, yet some share similar characteristics. These similarities between species allow them to be identified as animals rather than other life forms on this planet. Evolution has altered the lives on this planet, yielding an abundance of diversity among all of the Earth's inhabitants.

Kura Cohen

The Animal Kingdom is very diverse. There are various phyla with different animals and several species. All phyla have different characteristics about them. Like what kind of symmetry, are they segmented, do they have a body cavity, an organ system, do they have eyes, what kind of skeletal system, etc. In my essay, I will be talking about six different animal kingdom phyla. I will be talking about Sponges, Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusk, Arthropods, and Chordates (Vertebrates).

The Sponges is the smallest and least complex. Sponges are found under water. Sponges are asymmetric because there are many shapes. Sponges are multicellularity because they have a lot of cells. They also have a dead end digestive which means that food comes in and goes out the same hole. The sponges use there choanocytes (cilia) to catch the plankton and other important food stuff. Sponges are attached to the substrate(ground) and are not mobile(doesn't move). All the other categories are mobile. One of the animals in the phyla sponges is the Choanocytes.

The Cnidarians are also least complex but more complex than Sponges. Cnidarians are also found under water also. Cnidarians are Radial Symmetric because they are round. Cnidarians are multicellularity because they have many cells. Cnidarians have a dead end digestive system. Cnidarians are mobile and can move around. They have tentacles(strings) that give out nematocysts (neurotoxins) that stings the prey so they can't move. That is how they eat. Some of the types animals in this phyla is Jelly Fish, Sea Anemones, Nematocyst, Anthozoans, Corals, and Scyphozoans.

The Annelids are pretty complex. Annelids are land dwellers and are terrestrial (crawls). Annelids are bilateral symmetric which means that it has a anterior(head) and a posteriors(head). Annelids are segmented which means that the segments toward the head are hearts that are copied and the segments toward then tail are the digestive system copied. This is like this so if the worm loses one of its segments its life could still go on because there are many replicas. Annelids have multi cells which make up there tissues. These tissues make up there body cavity. In the body cavity there is a circulatory(organs) system. Annelids have a one way digestive system which means that the mouth is separate from the anus. Annelids are mobile. Annelids have setae which is external bristles. Some of the types animals in this phyla is Earthworms and Polychaetes.

The Mollusks are also pretty complex. Mollusks live under water. Mollusks are bilateral symmetric. Mollusks have a three part body plan . The three parts are the visceral mass- foot- and head. The visceral mass is the section in the center that has the body's organs. The foot is used as an anchor for the mollusk to stay in one place. Mollusks have multi cells which make up there tissues. These tissues make up there body cavity. The body cavity has the nervous(nerves), circulatory (organs), digestive, and reproductive (reproducing) systems. Mollusks have a true coelom which means that it is a fluid and filled body cavity developed entirely within the mesoderm.. Mollusks have a one way digestive system. Mollusks have very simple eyes. They are the first group we looked at to have eyes. Mollusks are mobile. Some types of animals in this phyla is Anthozoans, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, and Bivalvia.

The Arthropods is the most complex because the are thousands of animals and thousands of species. Arthropods are found all over the world. Arthropods are bilateral symmetric. Arthropods are segmented. Arthropods have multi cells which make up there tissues. These tissues make up there body cavity. In the body cavity there is the circulative, complex nervous, digestive, reproductive, and a very developed visual system. Arthropods have a true coelom. Arthropods have a one way digestive system. Arthropods have compound eyes. Compound eyes are a lot of single eyes all in one. Arthropods have jointed appendages. Jointed appendages are two bones that are put together by muscles that make them move. Arthropods have a exoskeleton. Exoskeleton is the skeleton that is on the outside. Arthropods are mobile. Arthropods have a lot of legs. Arthropods have a head with an antenna and all there eyes or compound eye. Some of the types of animals in this phyla is Arachinida, Centipedes, Chilopoda, Crustacea, Diplopoda, Insecta, Millipedes, Sea Spiders, and Horseshoe Crab.

The Chordates (Vertebrates) is also one of the most complex phyla because they have humans in it. Chordates is bilateral symmetric. Chordates have multi cells that make up the tissues. The tissues make up the body cavity. Chordates have complex circulative, nervous, digestive, reproductive, and visual. Chordates have a true coelom. Chordates have very advanced eyes. Chordates have jointed appendages. Chordates have an internal skeleton. A internal skeleton means that the skeleton is inside the body. Chordates are mobile. Chordates have head and feet. Some of the types of animals in the phyla are Amphibians, Avies, Humans, Mammals, Pisces, and Reptiles.

Kura L. Cohen Revision 1

The Animal Kingdom is very diverse. There are various phylas with different animals and several species. All phylas have different characteristics about them. Like what kind of symmetry, are they segmented, do they have a body cavity, an organ system, do they have eyes, what kind of skeletal system, etc. In my essay, I will be talking about six different animal kingdom phylas. I will be talking about Sponges, Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusk, Arthropods, and Chordates (Vertebrates).

The Sponges is the smallest and least complex. Sponges are found under water. Sponges are asymmetric because there are many shapes. Sponges are multicellularity because they have a lot of cells. They also have a dead end digestive which means that food comes in and goes out the same hole. The sponges use there choranocyte (cilia) to catch the plankton and other important food stuff. Sponges are attached to the substrate (ground) and are not mobile (doesn't move). All the other categories are mobile. One of the animals in the phyla sponges is the Choanocytes.

The Cnidarians are also least complex but more complex than Sponges. Cnidarians are also found under water also. Cnidarians are Radial Symmetric because they are round. Cnidarians are multicellularity because they have many cells. Cnidarians have a dead end digestive system. Cnidarians are mobile and can move around. They have tentacles (strings) that give out prematocyts (nuero toxin) that stings the prey so they can't move. That is how they eat. Some of the types animals in this phyla is Jelly Fish, Sea Anemones, Nematocyst, Anthozoans, Corals, and Schyphozoans.

The Annelids are pretty complex. Annelids are land dwellers and are terrestrial (crawls). Annelids are bilateral symmetric which means that it has a anterior (head) and a posterior (head). Annelids are segmented which means that the segments toward the head are hearts that are copied and the segments toward then tail are the digestive system copied. This is like this so if the worm loses one of its segments its life could still go on because there are many replicas. Annelids are multicellular which make up tissues. These tissues make up there body cavity. In the body cavity there is a circulatory (organs) system. Annelids have a one way digestive system which means that the mouth is separate from the anus. Annelids are mobile. Annelids have setae which is external bristles. Some of the types animals in this phyla is Earthworms and Polychaetes.

The Mollusks are also pretty complex. Mollusks live under water. Mollusks are bilateral symmetric. Mollusks have a three part body plan . The three parts are the visceral mass, foot, and head. The visceral mass is the section in the center that has the body's organs. The foot is used as an anchor for the mollusk to stay in one place. Mollusks have multicellular which make up there tissues. These tissues make up there body cavity. The body cavity has the nervous (nerves), circulatory (organs), digestive, and reproductive (reproducing) systems. Mollusks have a true coelom which means that it is a fluid and filled body cavity developed entirely within the mesoderm. Mollusks have a one way digestive system. Mollusks have very simple eyes. They are the first group we looked at to have eyes. Mollusks are mobile. Some types of animals in this phyla is Anthozoans, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, and Bivalvia.

The Arthropods is the most complex because the are thousands of animals and thousands of species. Arthropods are found all over the world. Arthropods are bilateral symmetric. Arthropods are segmented. Arthropods are multicellular. These tissues make up there body cavity. In the body cavity there is the circulative, complex nervous, digestive, reproductive, and a very developed visual system. Arthropods have a true coelom. Arthropods have a one way digestive system. Arthropods have compound eyes. Compound eyes are a lot of single eyes all in one. Arthropods have jointed appendages. Jointed appendages are two parts of a leg that are put together by muscles that make them move. Arthropods have a exoskeleton. Exoskeleton is the skeleton that is on the outside. Arthropods are mobile. Arthropods have a lot of legs. Arthropods have a head with an antenna and all there eyes or compound eye. Some of the types of animals in this phyla is Arachnida, Centipedes, Chilopoda, Crustacea, Diplopoda, Insecta, Millipedes, Sea Spiders, and Horse Shoe Crab.

The Chordates (Vertebrates) is also one of the most complex phylas because they have humans in it. Chordates is bilateral symmetric. Chordates have multi cells that make up the tissues. The tissues make up the body cavity. Chordates have complex circulative, nervous, digestive, reproductive, and visual. Chordates have a true coelom. Chordates have very advanced eyes. Chordates have jointed appendages. Chordates have an internal skeleton. A internal skeleton means that the skeleton is inside the body. Chordates are mobile. Chordates have head and feet. Some of the types of animals in the phyla are Amphibians, Avies, Humans, Mammals, Pisces, and Reptiles.

Sponges are the only animal that is asymmetric. Cnidarians are the only animal that has radial symmetry. Different from Sponges and Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates are all bilateral symmetric. Mollusks are the only animal to have a three part body plan. Annelids and Arthropods are the only animals that is segmented. All the animals are multicellular. Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates all have tissues. Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates all have a body cavity. Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates all have true coelom. Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates all have organ systems. Sponges and Cnidarians have a dead end digestive system and Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates all have a one way digestive system. Mollusks have simple eyes. Unlike Mollusks, Arthropods have compound eyes. And unlike Arthropods, Chordates have advanced eyes. Arthropods and Chordates both have jointed appendages. Chordates have an internal skeleton and Arthropods have an external skeleton. All the animals are mobile except Sponges.

In the Plant Kingdom there are very diverse plants. There are various plants with many different versions of the plant. The plant colors change by the plant reproducing with another plant and different shapes or forms because the plant adapts to its environment. In my essay, I will be talking about four different plant types. The four different types of Hepatophyta (Liverworts), Sphenophyta (Horsetails), Coniferophyta (Conifers), and Gymnosperms (Angiosperms).

Hepatophyta or Liverworts are very simple. Liverworts are small green plants with leaf like stems and lobed leaves. Liverworts are lacking true roots and reproduce with spores. Liverworts are nonvascular plants. Nonvascular means that the there is no system of vessels and veins that carry sap, water, and nutrients all through the plant. Usually plants that are nonvascular are not very large because they have to be close to the ground to get there nutrients. Liverworts are dominant gametophyte. Dominant gametophyte is a the reproductive system of a plant. Gametes are both sex parts, the egg and the sperm. Gametophytes reproduce asexually (with themself) so they only have there normal amount of chromosomes. Gametophytes are not very good because if there is a change in the environment than the plant cannot adapt to change because it only has characteristics from one plant. Liverworts has a cuticle, stomata (allows movement of gasses in and out), roots, stems, and leaves. Liverworts have flat leaves.

Sphenophyta or Horsetails are also small plants. Horsetails are little seedless non vascular plants. Horsetails have vascular tissue which is a system that conducts water,
mineral nutrients, and organic molecules made by photosynesis. Horsetails have independent gametophyte and dominant sporophyte. Dominant sporophyte is plant cycle that reproduces sexually. Two different plants combine chromosomes and makes two pairs. Dominant sporophyte is very good because two genes from different individuals (plants) are combined so you have better chance to adapt to a change in the environment because the chromosomes are shuffled and you probably have a chromosome to fit the adaption. Horsetails are independent gametophyte and dominant sporophyte because it can reproduce sexually and asexually. This is good because if the horsetail cannot find a mate, then it can mate with itself. Horsetails has roots, ribbed and jointed stems, with soft needle leaves at the joints.

Coniferophyta or Conifers are large seed plants. Conifers are vascular plants with vascular tissue. Conifers are Gymnosperms. Gymnosperms are seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules not enclosed by any ovary. This is good because like I said above, the conifers can reproduce sexually or asexually. Conifers are mostly evergreen trees and shrubs. Conifers have roots, stems, and needle or scale leaves. Conifers also produce cones.

Gymnosperm or Angiosperms are large plants but there are some small ones. Angiosperms evolved from Gymnosperm. Angiosperms are seed plants that reproduce flowers which make seeds within an ovary. Angiosperms are vascular plants and have vascular tissue. Angiosperms have roots, stems, and flat leaves. Angiosperms reproduce cones and seeds. Angiosperms have made of herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees.

Angiosperms, Horsetails, and Conifers are vascular plants. Unlike them, Liverworts are nonvascular plants. Liverworts are dominant gametophyte. Horsetails and Conifers are dominant sporophyte. Horsetails are also independent gametophyte. Conifers also have tiny gametophyte. All four of the plants have roots and stems. Liverworts and Angiosperms have flowers. Conifers and Angiosperms have seeds or fruit. Conifers also have cones. Horsetails and Conifers have needles or scales as leaves. All four types of plants have ovules inclosed by an ovary.

Stacey Davis

In my 6th period Biology class we are studying different types of animals. Some of the animals that we are studying are Sponges, Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods and Chordates (Vertebrates). The animal kingdom is very diverse. In the following paragraphs I will tell the characteristics of each animal.

The first phyla is the Sponge. The sponge is asymmetric which means it has many shapes and forms. One form of the sponge is the Choanocytes. Sponges are multicellarity because they have many cells. The sponge has a dead end digestive system . That means that the sponges mouth and anus are the same hole. Sponges cant move they are attached to the substrate which is the ground. They use choanocytes (cilia) to catch their Plankton.

The second phyla is the Cnidarians. The Cnidarians unlike the sponge is Radial Symmetric which means theirs only one shape the circle. Some forms of the Cnidarians are the neumatocytes, the Anthozoans, the Corals and the Scyphozoans. Like the sponge Cnidarians are also multi .celled. They also have a dead end digestive system. Cnidarians are mobile They can move to catch their pray. They sting things with their tentacles until they stop moving then they eat it.

The third phyla is the Annelids. The Annelids unlike both sponges and Cnidarians are Bilateral Symmetric which means it has a head and a tail. Annelids are segmented they have thin tiny lines on them. Also like Sponges and Cnidarians they are multicellarity. The many cells it has makes up the tissues. The tissues make up the body cavity. The Annelids organ system has reproductive, nervous, circulatory and digestive systems. The Annelids have simple eyes so they have regular vision. Like Cnidarians they are mobile. The Annelid has external bristles called Setae which look like hairs.

The fourth phyla is the Mollusks. The Mollusks like the Annelid is Bilateral Symmetric, it also has a head and a tail. The Mollusks has three parts to the body (the three part body plan). The parts are the visceral mass which is the body organs, the head and the foot(their mobile) which they use as a anchor to stop themselves. Mollusks just like sponges, Cnidarians and Annelids are multi celled. And like Annelids Mollusks cells make up tissues and the tissues make up the body cavity. The Mollusks true coelom is a fluid and field body cavity that develops entirely from the mesoderm. The Mollusks organ system is the same as the Annelids it has a reproduction, nervous, circulatory and digestive systems. Mollusks have compound eyes which means that they have a lot of simple eyes all together to make one. There are three types of Mollusks the Bivalvia ,the Cephalopoda and the Gastropoda.

The fifth phyla is the Arthropods. The Arthropods like Annelids and Mollusks are Bilateral Symmetric. It is also segmented like a Annelid. And like the rest it is multi celled phyla the cells make up the tissue and the tissue makes up the body cavity. Like the Mollusks the Arthropods have True coelom. Like Mollusks it has compound eyes. It also has a head and feet(their mobile). There are seven types of Arthropods the Archnida, the Bivalvia the Cephalopoda, the Crustacea, the Diplopoda, the Insecta and the Millipedes.

The sixth phyla is the Chordates(vertebrates). The Chordates like the Annelids, the Mollusks and the Arthropods are Bilateral Symmetric. It is also multi celled like all the rest of them. The cells make up the tissues and the tissues make up the body cavity. The chordates are mobile they have feet and a head: Like the Arthropods and Mollusks it has a true coelom. It has a dead end digestive system like the Sponge and the Cnidarians. The mouth and the anus, are the same hole. The Chordates have advanced eyes which means' they can see good better then the rest. They also have jointer appendages which means there bones are connected to their muscles. They have an internal skeleton lice humans. There are five types of Chordates they are the Amphibians, the Avies, the mammals, the Pisces and the reptiles.

Justin Geeter

Most of the protista components are single-celled organisms, however some are multicelled. Its cells consist of a nucleus, organelles, vacuole, cell membrane, and some of them also contain a cell wall. It uses many intricate processes to obtain food, such as pseudopodium, photosynthesis, cilia, flagella, as well as photosynthesis. It moves by means of cilia, flagella, and pseudopodium. It can reproduce by conjugation, fission, asexual, and sexual means. In the environment, it produces much the way plants do, while consuming much the way animal do. It is important to its habitat because it stabilizes the food chain, is a human food source, and produces oxygen. Some common protista are plankton, algae, and the amoeba.

Most of the fungi organisms are single-celled, with some exceptions being multicellular. This group has a nucleus, organelles, a cell membrane, as well as a cell wall present in all fungi that is absent from the previously mentioned kingdoms. It obtains food in majority from absorbs ion, partnership, and leeching from decaying organisms. Its only movement is that of the host, which it is connected to. They reproduce by spore, as well as by asexual budding. They are helpful because they produce antibiotics and also help in fermentation. Some organisms that are members of the fungi kingdom are mushrooms, molds, mildews, and yeast.

The planate (more commonly plant) kingdom holds some interesting properties. Unlike the previously mentioned kingdoms, the planate consists only of multi-celled organisms. All members of the group known as planate contain a nucleus, organelles, cell membrane, cell wall, as well as a vacuole. Their major source of food comes from the process of photosynthesis. Its only movement is in growth, where it gravitates toward the most prominent light source. It reproduces through a complex process of Propagation, which consists of grafting, budding, cutting, and layering. It is used in its envierment for a food source as well as a medicine. Angiosperms, gymnosperms, mosses, and ferns all call the planate kingdom their kingdom.

The cells of a member of the animalia kingdom consist of a nucleus, organelles, cell membrane, as well as the vacuole. They obtain food mainly from preying on another species or consuming a previously deceased organism. They have muscular movement through water, air, and soil. Its main role in the envierment is consumers. However, they also provide an important food source for other members of its kingdom. Some Animalia kingdom members are mammals, amphibians, sponges, and worms.

Jeff Huang

During this unit, the Animal Kingdom, I learned about each phylum and classes. We did many experiments to study deeper about the different phyla and also have to describe and identify the anatomy of the animals. Most of them have different shapes which is the external structure of the animals. After we dissected the animals to see their internal structure. I have recognized their similarities and differences. The Animal Kingdom is one of the major and complex group of biology.

Sponges are the lowest level and the simplest phylum of animal kingdom. Almost all sponges live in the sea. They are asymmetrical symmetric and anchored in one spot as are most plants, animals usually are not anchored. That's the reason why most people think that sponges are plant. They have a dead end digestive system in which food and waste product go out with a same place. Also, they capture food with choanocyte cilia. Sponges filter food particles from water by trapping them. The food is digested inside the cells of sponges. Sponges have no class.

Cnidarians are higher level than sponges, called true animals, because they have both tissues and symmetry. Actually all animals other than sponges are true animals. Cnidarians are radial symmetric. They have the same digestive system as dead end as sponges do. But they capture food with pneumatocytes and digest the food in their digestive cavities. They have two class. Jellyfish are free-floating and often umbrella shaped in the sea. Sea anemones are cylindrical, usual attach to a rock.

Annelids are higher level than the former. They are bilateral symmetric and segmented. Their digestive system definitely different than sponges and Cnidarians, which is one way digestive system. It means their food and waste product go with different place. Also, they have anterior, hearts, coelom, lungs, and posterior. Annelids are organized into three class. Polychaetes worms almost all live in ocean. Their segments have limbs. Earth worms live on land. Their anterior are fatter. Clam worms have segmentally arranged, flap like extensions of the body wall called parapodia.

Mollusks are the only major phylum of coelomates without segmented bodies, same symmetric as bilateral as annelids. They also are one way digestive system. The bodies of all mollusks are composed of three distinct regions. They are visceral mass, mantle and gill. Mollusks have cell and good nervous system. Obviously, annelids don't have cell. Also, their foot is close to their head. Mollusks organized into three class. Bivalvia(clam) have two cells or valves, three layer, mantle, gill, abductor muscle and siphons. Gastropods(stomach foot) live in land, ocean, and fresh water. They have only one cell. Cephalopods are tentacles and arms suckers hooks. They almost live in ocean.

Arthropods have the same symmetric and digest system as mollusks. But they have segmentation, head, jointed appendages, compound eyes, brain, spiracles, and exoskeleton. They all segment. They are the first appendages animals, too. Arthropods organized into seven class. Millipedes have two pairs about 1000 legs. Centipedes have one pairs about 100 legs. Insects are the most diverse and complex and have three body parts about 8 legs. Arachnids have 3 body parts about 8 legs. Crustaceans are thick exoskeleton animals. Horseshoe crabs have 2 pairs of antenna. Sea spiders have 3 pairs of chewing append. They are all walking animals.

Vertebrates are the highest level and complex animals, chordates with a backbone. They also have internal skeleton. Their symmetric, digestive system are same as arthropods. Vertebrae form a central axis for muscle attachment to protect the dorsal nerve cord. Vertebrates organized into five class. Amphibians lay eggs and dry out easily. They breath though skill and have scales and simple lungs, but stronger skeleton. Reptiles have developed lungs. They lay eggs and cold blood. Avies are feathers and warm body.. They have very developed lungs. Mammals have feather, hair and developed lungs. They are warm blood and internal fertilization. Fish have scales, gills and lay eggs. They are cold blooded animals.

From this unit, I learned that there are six phyla of animal kingdom. The purpose of this unit was to name the major groups of the animals and observe their feature and characteristic. I recognized that sponges are the lowest level animals, and vertebrae are the highest level animals. All six phylum of animal have differences and similarities structure. I learned a lot from this unit. I think I got a lot of benefit for my education in this lesson.

Jeremy Hui

The animal kingdom deals with all different types of species. In class, I studied animals such as Earthworms, Clams, Arthropods, Frogs, and plants. I looked at all types of classes. The first class I studied is the worm class. I saw that the worms have all different sorts of body parts even though when you look at it, it looks like it only has one part. I found out that the worm has a one-way digestive system. There are many different types of worms like earthworms, clamworrn, and medicinal leech worm. The earthworm belongs to the Oligochaeta class and the medicinal leech belongs to the hirudinea class.

Our next animal kingdom subject is the Clams. The clam belongs to the bivalvia class. When I opened up the Clam I notice that each valve of the clam consist of three layers. The three layers are outer organic layer, middle layer of calcium carbonate, and inner calcified organic layer. The two valves are connected by a hinge ligament. The clam also consist of a mantle cavity which is located between the mantle layers. The clam's leg is used for digging and anchoring itself. The clam could dig faster than humans using a shovel. On the sides of the visceral mass is a pair of gills. Each gills consists of two vascularized porors. The clam feeds on microscopic organisms brought into the mantle cavity through the incurrent siphon and into the mouth. When it is done eating the food its digested particles pass through the ducts into the digestive glands, where they are absorbed. Also their nervous system consists of 3 pairs of ganglia.

The frogs, they are found in temperate and tropical climates around the world. They live close to water. Their are many different types of frogs. Their skin glands have poison that repels predators. Its body consist of the head,trunks,forelimbs, and hindlimbs. The bones of the hindlimbs are supported by the pelvia girdle. I found out that frogs start out being a tadpole then evolve itself. The plant class, there are many types of plants. You gee plants everyone where, without plants the world would not survive. Plants have male and female parts. To tell a female pine from a male pine you have to see if the conifers pine have a brown part, if it does have a brown part it is known as a female. If you see a yellow tip on a needle then it is known to be a male part.

So from this animal kingdom lab, I learned a lot more stuff about animals than I already know. Like the clams I saw and disected, I know I won't experience eating a clam anymore. I think the most interesting type of animal is the plants. The plants are easier to study and it is very interesting. They have a lot of things common with other animals such as sponges. They don't seem to be alive but they are. Sponges and plants are anchored onto the ground. Some plants are dangerous such as the venus fly trap.

Keithrie Jennings

There are six main phylums. As the millions of years past these phylums starts to get more and more advance and complex as they adjust themselves to their environment. The first phylum is the sponge. If you look at this phylum at first, you might think it's some kind of cactus underwater. How is this poo poo green, dry and slimy at the same time, and slow looking creature actually an animal? You ask yourself. But you should never judge aphylum by it's appearance. Many, including me mistakens this phylum as a plant, but actually this phylum is a true animal. It is anchored in place and aren't moble just like a plant. This phylum's body is really scattred around like a plant and it's stems and totally lacks symmetry. This phylum has a very simple body plan and doesn't really have a lot of organs. Unlike us and many of the other phylums, sponges and cnidarians has a dead-end digestive system. This freaky system is where the mouth is the same as the anus. This means that whatever they put in their mouth, comes back out of their mouth. That's what so cool about these phylums, but thinking about it stills makes me want to throw up and I'm glad I don't have that freaky system in my body. I'm not really into the whole dirty waste in my mouth thing.

You've probably seen the next phylum before. Maybe it stun you on your butt while you were skinny dipping or maybe you probably just saw it lying on the sand dead and guts all smeared around. It's really clear, bell-shaped, really slimy, and floats. It's the cnidarians which is a big geeky word for jellyfish. Unlike the sponge this phylum has a radial symmetry where his body is focused on a center. This phylum is one of my favorite phylums too. What's so cool about it is that it poisons its food first before it eats it. It stuns it's food with it's long slimy tentacles with this neurotoxin that makes it's food brain freeze and can't move. After is all stupid and frozen, the jellyfish takes it up to his mouth and digests it. The only this bad thing about this phylum is that it's as freaky as the sponge. It also has an anus as a mouth. What is with all these freaky, dirty mouth phylums, but soon all this will stop and the next generation of phylums will start to have anuses. There is another class of cnidarian, it is called the Anthozoa. I don't know why they changed they name so much. It look's like a ordinary jellyfish except that it is backwards and stuck on a rock. It's just like the sponge, it is also anchored and can't move.

Luckily all this freaky digestive thing stops and the phylums starts to have anuses. It stays that way too. The next phylum is the annelids which is another nerdy word for worms. The annelids are the first phylum to have the bilateral symmetry where each side is of the phylum is the same with a anterior which is the head and a posterior which is the end. It's like looking in a mirror. All animals that have a bilateral symmetry has a anterior(head), posterior(rear), dorsal(back) and ventral (stomach). Annelids are also segmented. It's like the body had beencut up and divided up into parts. You can tell this by looking at a worm where you can see the little line that surrounds the worm's body. From this time on all the following generations of phylums has a bilateral symmetry. And let's not forget about the new digestive system that is hitting the phylum nation. Everyone is doing it. Say goodbye to wasteful mouths and say hello to the one-way digestive system. In this system, there is actually an anus. They eat the food and then comes out of their anus just like us. The annelids are also the first phylums to start the whole body cavity trend and no it is not a ritarded tooth problem thing. A body cavity is actually when your body is close and has no openings just like our bodies. All our organs are protected by our skin and muscles. Unlike the sponges and cnidarians, the annelids and other phylums have a body cavity. The sponges and cnidarians have a big opening the center of their body that is always open. Annelids may look really wimpy and boring, but they have an advance body plan compared to the sponges and cnidarians. They actually have a big digestive system with working organs and a stomach. They even have a nervous system. They sure beat the sponges and cnidarians when it come to the insides, but as generations form the more complex these phylums get. There are two classes of annelids. The first class is the earthworms. Earthworms would eat anything. They're detritavores. They just eat up a file of mud and whatever is in the mud they digest. That's really nasty to me. It's almost as bad as school lunch. You never know what's in it you just eat it and hope it taste good. The next class is the polychaetes. These guys are marines. They live in the ocean swimming their lives away using limbs to transport themselves and wiggle themselves from rock to rock.

The next phylum are clams which are called the mollusks. Like the annelids, clams have a bilateral symmetry and a one way digestive system. But these guys have gone complex. With organ systems for circulation, respiration, digestion, and excretion they beat all the other phylums out of the ballpark back at that time. Their body consist of three parts which are the mascular foot, the head, and the visceral mass. Like the annelids, all mollusk are true coeloms too. This is what a mollusk's body cavity is called. The coelom of the mollusk is enclosed within the mesoderm. This helps mollusk have advance organs. There are three classes of Mollusks which are the bivalves, gastropods, cephalopods. The bivalves consist of two shells that is connected with the hinge ligament. Each shell consist of three layers which are the outer organic layer, prismatic layer, and calafied organic layer. Shells is what the mollusk is known for. they're the only phlums who use shells. You're probably asking where all this shell comes from. Do these guys saw it up or something. The answer is the mantle that makes shell by secreting the calcium carbonate. Like all mollusks their is a foot that anchors the animal and digs into the sand. It's like a hand except called a foot. Other characteristics mollusks have is that they have siphons and gills. The Siphons are like the mouth and anus thing. It's like a tube just like the annelids have. There are two parts of the tube. There is the incurrent siphon where water and food enters clam and the excurrent siphon where the water and food leaves the clam. The tubes are next to each other unlike the annelids where it is a straight route, but they are both unfreaky freaky and use one-way digestive system. Each mollusk have two pairs of gills that help them breath. It lies on each side of the siphons . It also helps sort out sand from food and out the excurrent siphon. The molusks are the first phylum to use gills.

Like the annelids and mollusks, the next phylum has a bilateral symmetry and one-way digestive system. Like mollusks , these guys are have a coelom and are segmented. They are the arthropods. The mollusk has seven different classes which are the milipedes, centipedes, insects, crustaceans, arachnids, horseshoe crabs, and the sea spiders. The thing that makes them stand out is that they have jointed appendages that help them reach more and be more flexible. Another thing cool about these guys is that the have exoskeletons. It's like hard protective skin. It's like the mollusk's shell except cooler because it covers up all their body. The only bad thing is that they can't grow in it so they shed after a while. It's like if your tired of your old skin you can get another one.

The next phylum is my favorite one because I'm in it. It is the vertabrates. It's the last phylum. Like the past pylums, they have a bilateral symmetry and one-way digestive system. They also have a coelom like the mollusk. The different thing about it is that they have spinal cord. Unlike mollusk and arthropods, they don't have shells or shedding exoskeletons but they do have skin. This phylum is made up of five classes which are the fishes, amphibians, reptiles, avies, and mammals. Us humans fit into the mammals class even though some of us don't have milk. All of the classes in this phylum lay eggs except for mammals.

As generations pass these phylums start to get more complex and complex producing more organs and parts to adapt to their environment more better.

Christina Khalil

For the past couple of weeks, our Biology class has been look and observing different types of Animals. Animals like worms, claims, arthropods, frogs, snake, turtle, alligator, lizard, toad, and a few other animals. We also looked at Sponges, Cnidaria, Annelids, and Molluka.

Sponges are anchored. They have a dead-end and has a Digestive System. There Choranocycle (cilia). Of course like any other living organism they eat Plankton (food). Sponges have tissues and a asymmetrical. As for Cnidaria (jelly fish) there also dead-end. They have a radio system. A scyphozoa pulls prey up to its mouth with its tentacles. A cnidaria uses nematocyst to capture prey. Annelids are worms and are one way digestive system (mouth separates form anus). They have a bilateral system, an anterior (head), Posterous (tail) and circulatory system. They're segmented. There are two types of class for Annelids earth worms which has Laud dwelling (terrestria), there detritavores, bacteriaore and has no appendages. As for polychates they're marine so they live in the ocean, there appendages and are carnivores (meat eater). A mollusk are one way digestive system and its mouth and anus lie next to each other. There bilateral, and has body cavity. It has a 3-part body plan reproduction a visceral mass, head, and foot. The mollusk has three classes bivalvia ( bivalves) which has a three layered shell, a mantle, a visceral massgills, mouth, anus, siphons- excurrent and incurrent. A bivalvia has two adductor muscles. The Cephalopods (head-foot) which are octopus, squid. And the last class is Gastropods. Mollusk is the first with a true coelom. Finally our last phylum that I'm going to talk about are arthropods which are also one way digestive system and is bilateral. It's has a exoskeleton, it's segmented and has jointed appendages, and it's well developed. It also has a nervous system, organ system, and reproduction. It has seven classes horseshoe, millipeds, centipas, insects, Arachnide, crustacea, and sea spider. Spiders and scorpions are arthropods that inject digestive enzymes into its prey, before devouring it. Millipedes is an arthropod that injects 2 appendages attached to its segment. Arthropods has the most advanced nervous system.

Christina Khalil Revision 1

For the past couple of weeks, our Biology class has been looking and observing different types of Animals. Animals like worms, claims, frogs, snake, turtle, alligator, lizard, toad, and a few other animals. The animal kingdom is very diverse. We were looking at six different phyla's. The six specific phyla's that we've been looking at are Sponges, Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusk, Arthropods, and Chordates (Vertebrates).

Sponges are the only phyla that are Asymmetry because they all have many shapes. Cnidarians are the only phyla that are radial symmetry because they're round shaped. The rest of the phyla's, which are Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates, are bilateral symmetry, which means they have an anterior, and posterior.

Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates are three-part body plan. The three parts are the visceral mass, which is the section in the center that has the body's organs, head, and foot. Sponges, Cnidarians and Annelids aren't three-part body plan.

Annelids and Arthropods are segmented. When those phyla's are segmented it means that segments towards the head are hearts and the segments toward the tail are the digestive system. For example if a worm losses one of its segments, they're still alive because they're a lot of replicas.

All of them are Multicellular plus protista. When a phylum is multicellular it means that it makes up tissues. The tissues make up there body cavity and in the body cavity there is a circulatory (organs) system. They are all similar when it comes to this category because there multicellular have many cells in them, and in the body cavity they all have a complex circulatory (organs), nervous (nerves), digestive, reproducing (reproducing), and a well developed visuals system.
Mollusks and Chordates are the only phylum that has a true coelom. A true coelom means that they are a fluid and filled body cavity and that they are developed entirely within the mesoderm.
Sponges, and Cnidarians are the only two phyla's that are Dead-end digestive system. A dead-end digestive system means that food comes in and goes out the same hole. The rest of the phyla's, which are Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates, have one-way digestive system. A one-way digestive system means that the mouth is separated from the anus.
Most Mollusks has simple eyes, Arthropods have compound eyes, which are a lot of single eyes all in one, and chordates have very advance eyes.

Arthropods and Chordates have jointed appendages. Jointed appendages are when two parts of a leg are put together by muscles that make them move.

Chordates are the only phyla that have internal skeleton. An internal skeleton means that the skeleton is inside the animal's body, just like human beings, their skeleton is in the human's body. Arthropods have an exoskeleton. An exoskeleton is the opposite of internal skeleton, so an exoskeleton is one its skeleton is on the outside of the body.

All of the phyla's are moble except for sponges. Moble means movement within the animal or phyla. Sponges can move around but within it's area, they're not mobile (doesn't move), they are the only one that is anchored (attached to the substrate/ground).

Annelids are the only phyla that are setae. A setae is an external bristles.

Sponges are the only phyla that are coenocytes. A coenocytes (cilia) is to catch the plankton and other imported food.

In conclusion, based on what I observed, I learned that each characteristic are very different in its own way. They all have similarities, and one big similarity they all have is that they all fall in to the same category, which is the Animal Kingdom. I noticed that some of the information I learned related to humans. One of the animals that are in the Sponges phyla is the choanoytes. Some types of animals that are in the Cnidarians phyla are jellyfish, sea anemones, nematocyst, entozoan, corals, and scyphozoans. Some animals in the Annelids phyla are earthworms and polychaetes. Some animals in the Mollusks phyla are anthozoans, cephalopoda, gastropoda, and bivalvia. Some types of animals that are in the Arthropods phyla are arachnida, centipedes, chilopoda, crustacea, diplopoda, insecta, millipedes, sea spiders, and horseshoe crab. Some types of animals that are in the Chordate phyla are amphibians, avies, humans, mammals, Pisces, and reptiles.

May Dan Kuang

There are '" phyla that live in the whole world. Some are very common and we heard a 'lot about while some we didn't even have a chance to see it. The six different phyla are porifera, cnidarians, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrates. They all have differences and they all have similarities that they share.

Porifera, which refers to a lot of pores, are sponges. Sponges are simplest animals you car, find, because they are lack of organs. They are more like plants in a way because they are anchor to the sea floor, but they don't photosynthesis like all the plants do. Because they don's have urn, they have to use cilia, eau choanocytes, which attracts the water arid filter with the holes on its body. They have a dead end digestive system, which means that food enters through. the mouth, wastes leaves by the mouth. They have an asymmetry body, which means it has no central point or axis on its' body. They also have no body cavity.

Cnidarians are jelly fishes, sea anemones, hydra, etc. They have habitats that are mostly in the water or close to the water. Example like the jelyfish, they float on water and the sea anemones which look like a upside down jellyfish sticks to rocks by the side. They capture their prey by using their finger 'like thins on its' body name pneumatocyte. When they catch a prey, they will inject some neuro toxin into their body acid mess nip their cells and stun them. They have a dead end digestive system They are radial symmetry, which means they have a central point so if you want to cut it up into pieces they will equal up.

Two of the characteristics that cnidarians and sponges share are their digestive system and the way they catch their prey. Both cnidarians and sponges have a dead end digestive system. The cnidarians uses neumatocyte while the sponges use their cilia. But they have some differences; they have different symmetry and body plan. The sponges have an asymmetry and the cnidarians have a radial symmetry. The sponges are very simple; the cnidarians has a better body plan than they do.

The annelids are earthworms and polychaetes. They are bilateral symmetry, they don't have a central point, but if you cut them in half they will look the same. They have a one-way digestive system when means that they enter through the mouth and it leaves on its alias. They have a better nervous system than the cnidarians and the sponges. They have segmented body, arid because of their segment they actually ha'v'e a heart arid eventually more than t heart because they have more than 10 segments on their body. T hey have a more complex body plan and they have body cavity.

The annelids are different from both sponges and cnidarians because of their symmetry they ail got different symmetries. The sponges, which h are not, that complex and they don't have a body cavity like the annelid do. They got different digestive system. They are more similar on their tropic level, the Polychaeta, which is one of the classes of the annelid, is a carnivore, like they jellyfish they are also carnivores.

The Mollusks group includes clam, snail, octopus, etc. They have a one-way digestive system. They have a bilateral symmetry. They have three body parts; they are the foot, visceral mass and head. They have a good circulatory and nervous system. They also have body cavity.

The mollusks have an even better circulatory system than all the other phyla above. Mollusk is more like the annelids because they have the same symmetry. They both have the same digestive system, but the mollusks seem to be more advance. They have siphons that can separate Afferent food, that can help them not eat the food that is not edible to them and they don't have to go through all the intestines to get out. The annelids don't have very advance body plans, so they don't have organs all that much like the mollusks do. The mollusks mainly live on the ma-1-11.1e and the polychaete lives on the marine also.

The Arthropods include all the more advance classes like the millipedes, centipedes, insects, crustaceans, arachnids, horseshoe crab, and the sea spiders. To me they fairly advance and complicate. They have bilateral symmetry. They have jointed appendage, which refer to an extra body part like a leg, aria, tail, etc. They also have exoskeleton that limits their size for growth. h. They also have a one-way digestive system. They also have segmented body

The millipedes and centipedes are more like the annelids, because they look more like the polychaete. They also have a one-way digestive System like a lot of the of her J phyla. They also have segmented body like the annelids. Unlike the annelids, they have only one heart. Their exoskeleton 38 'very unique other phylum doesn't have it.

Last but not least, the vertebrates. T hey are the amphibian, reptile, fish, avies, and mammals. They have this name because all animals under t here have spinal cord. They have the most advance body plan. T he ha'v'e internal skeleton. They are bilateral symmetry and one-way digestive system. Some of the classes are eventually warm blooded.

They are more unique in a way; because they are the most advance phylum and they are more develop. They have a lot of differences than the others. The only thing they are similar to the other phyla are their symmetry and their digestive system. Unlike the arthropods, they have skeleton "inside of them. They are also unique of their backbone and warm--blooded.

They all share some differences and similarities. The sponges is not compare to most of the classes, because 'they don't look that much of art an animal arid don't have much characteristic to compare to others. The animal kinom is more about similarities in their looks, habits, and their body plan.

Rowena Kumar

A phylum is a group of organisms that have similar characteristics. There are many different groups of phylums. The phylums consist of sponges, cnidarean (jellyfish), annelids(worms), mollusks (clams), anthropods, and vertebrate Through out this essay you will learn about a couple of phylums and what is consists of.

The first phylum that I am going to write about are sponges. When I say sponges I don't mean the sponges that you use to wash dishes but an actual living animal Sponges form is asymmetrical. It has an dead end digestive system; which means it come in one way and exits through that same place. Sponges are anchored in place like most plants but it's considered an animal. Sponges filters food particles from water by trapping them in their choanocytes (little cilia; it's hair like). Sponges look some what like a tube.

The next phylum that fm going to write about is cnidarean or jellyfish Jellyfish is the common name for this phylum. The jellyfish has a radial symmetry. they also have a dead-end digestive system . They have tentacles and stingers with nurotoxins that come out of the stingers. They used the stingers to protect there. The phylum consists of both jellyfish and. anthozoan or sea anemone. The jellyfish float, are bell shaped, and they are clear. The sea anemone is an upside-down jellyfish„ it's not clear, and it attaches itself to rocks and other things.

Annelids or worms are another type of phylum. They have a bilateral symmetry. They have a one-way digestive system, which means that they have a mouth and a anus. They have a some what complex body system. It's segmented, has a head, posterior, and a body cavity. The annelids consist of earthworms and polchaetes. The earth worm is a detritavore and has no limbs. The polychaetes are marine animals, they have limbs, and are carnivores.

Mollusks or clams are the next phylum Clams have a bilateral symmetry. They also have a one-way digestive system. They have a body plan a foot that helps them anchor to the ground, visceral mass, a head, and a coelom. The class is call bivalves. It has two shells, three layers, a mantle, abductor muscles, siphon, gills, and hinged ligament They are plankton eaters.

Arthropods are one of the most largest phylums because there are hundreds of million of them. All Arthropods have a head, jointed appendages, they are segmented, have an exoskeleton, compound eyes, spiracles, and circulatory system. There is also a couple of exception, some arthropods have wigs and a malpighain tubules. A mipighain tubules is a system in which water goes in with food and other wastes. Then when it is realeases the water and waste is filtered out and the food is left. There are seven classes of arthropods. Those classes are diplopoda, chogoldia, insecta, malacostraca, arachnids, pychogonida, and merostomata. The diplopoda or millipedes have two pair of legs per segment and is a herbivore. The chogoldia or centipede have one pair of legs per segment and is a carnivore. The insecta class or insects have a head, thorax, abdomen and six legs on the thorax Malacostraca or crustaceans have two pairs a legs, thorax a head, and abdomen. Arachnids have eight legs, an abdomen, and they are carnivores. Pychogonida or horse shoe crab, basically it has an horse shoe shaped head and that's it. And last but not least the merostomata or sea spider.

Vertebrae's are the last yet most important phylum. The vertebraes have a bilateral symmetry. It has a coelom, a vertebrae, and a spinal cord. The classes consist of fish, amphibians, reptiles, avies or birds, and mammals. The fish are marine animals. They have two pairs a limbs. They have dorsal and ventral fins, gills and produce eggs. They can only survive in water. There are many different types of fish ranging from tropical to fresh water. Amphibians such as frogs, toads, and salamanders have two pairs of limbs thick skin and they are cold blooded. Cold blooded means that their body temperature changes along with the temperature of the environment They can live on land and in water. Reptiles have scales, they are cold blooded and they lay eggs. Reptiles can also go weeks or months without eating. Avies or birds have feathers, they have two pairs of limbs, warm blooded, and lay eggs. Last, we have mammals, the best class of them all They have fur, they are warm blooded, they have milk, and they have internal fertilization.

These are some of the many phylums. If I was to pick which out of these six were my favorite I would pick the vertebraes. Why I would pick that? It's because I'm an vertebrae. I hope that you learn a lot from my paper and that you get something from it.

Rowena Kumar - Rewrite

A phylum is a group of organisms that have similar characteristics. There are many different groups of phyla The phyla consist of sponges, Cnidaria (Jellyfish), annelids (worms), mollusks (clams), arthropods, and vertebrates. Through out this essay you will learn about these phyla. You will also have an idea of how they are different.

One thing that makes them different is their symmetry. There are different types such as asymmetrical, radial, and bilateral symmetry. The sponges are the only phylum that is asymmetrical. The Cnidaria or jellyfish is the only phylum with radial symmetry. Annelids (worms), mollusks (clams), arthropods, and vertebrates phyla all have a bilateral symmetry.

Another characteristic that makes each phylum different from each other is their digestive system. Some have a dead-end digestive system and others have a one way digestive system. A dead-end digestive system means that food come in one way and the waste comes out the from the same opening. A one way digestive system is when you food goes in one opening and comes out another, in other words it has a mouth and a anus. Sponges and Cnidaria or jellyfish are the only phylum that has a dead-end digestive system. Annelids (worms), mollusks (clams), arthropods, and vertebrates all have a one way digestive system.

The most distinguishing feature is what classes are in that phylum. In the sponge phylum there is only sponges. In the Cnidaria class there are jellyfish and Anthozoa or sea anemone. In the phylum annelids or worms there are earthworms and Polychaetes. In the mollusk or clam phylum it only consists of one class bivalves. The phylum with the most classes are the arthropods. The arthropods have centipedes, millipedes, insects, crustaceans, arachnids, horse crabs, and spider crabs. In the last phylum vertebrates there are five classes; the fish, amphibian, reptiles, Avies or birds, and mammals.

In all the phyla there is one specific trait that only one has and that all the others don't. For example the sponge are asymmetrical. The Cnidaria or jellyfish has radial symmetry. The annelids or worms has 150 segmented parts. The mollusks or clams have a foot (that helps keep them anchored to the ground) and a visceral mass. Arthropods are probably the phylum that is the most unlike the rest. One of the characteristics that the arthropods has is an exoskeleton and that it has the hundred of millions of species that fall into the arthropod phylum. Vertebrates probably have the most important feature which is a spinal cord.

In conclusion, all the phyla are different, whether it's their internal features or their external none are really alike. Yet you can also see some things that they do have in common. In the second paragraph about symmetry you can see that four out of the six phyla have bilateral symmetry. Many things are different and. many things are alike. Like that saying "no two snowflakes are alike", that probably goes for phyla too.

Jenny Lam

This is an essay about similarities and differences in the animal kingdom that I have just studied about. During this session, I can tell you something that I have learned about animals. Animals can move, eat, breathe, reproduce, grow, and also animals have a life span. Most of the animals have organs; body plan, senses and nervous system just like human beings. There are also more that I can say about animals, but these are the basic stuff that I am going to mention on my essay, so too bad!

Phylum have different symmetries. There are three different symmetries. There are asymmetry, radial symmetry, and bilateral symmetry. Asymmetry means that it is not symmetrical. Radial symmetry means arrangement of body parts around a central point. Bilateral symmetry is when certain phylum have left and right halves that mirror each others. A good example would be a butterfly. Most phylum have bilateral symmetry. Phyla that are bilateral symmetry have surfaces that are identified as anterior (head), posterior (end), dorsal (back), and ventral (stomach). There is phylum that digest differently. There are two digestive tract, dead end digestive tract and one way digestive tract.

Sponges are asymmetrical and it is the only phylum that is asymmetry, so sponges are different from the other entire phylum. Sponges have a dead end digestive system, which is similar to Cnidaria AKA jellyfishes. Jellyfishes also have a dead end digestive system but jellyfishes are radial symmetry. Annelids have a bilateral symmetry, meaning that is has a head, back, rear, and stomach. Annelids have a one way digestive system. Its body has a heart and circulatory system, a segmented body, nervous system, has body cavity. Arthropods have some similarities with annelids. Arthropods also have segmented body, same bilateral system, its digestive system is one way, and has a heart. It also has a nervous system, but it is more advanced than annelids. There is something arthropods have which the annelids don't have; arthropods have jointed appendages and exoskeleton.

Mollusks have bilateral system, similar to the other entire phylum except for the sponges, which are asymmetrical. Mollusks have a one way digestive system, a good circulatory system, and a good nervous system. It has three body parts, and they are foot, visceral mass and head. As I said before, mollusks are similar to all the other phylum except for sponges, but the differences between them is that mollusk have three body parts.

Vertebrates will be the last phylum that I will be typing about because it is the last phylum. Vertebrates are bilateral symmetry and have a one way digestive system like the other entire phylum except for the sponges. Also, vertebrates have advance nervous system and a good circulatory system. The only differences are vertebrates have spinal cords and internal skeletons.

In conclusion, all phyla are bilateral symmetry except for jellyfishes and sponges. Most of the phylum has either advanced systems or good systems. Some have different body plans than others. These are the similarities and differences between each phylum.

Jacky Lao

In this report, there have many kinds of Phylum creatures, and find out their shape and body parts by dissection. They are Sponges, Annelids, Mollusk, Arthropods and Vertebrae.

Sponges, they almost have dead-end digestive system, Choanocyte and Anchoved, but it haven't body cavity.The animal of the sponges is Anthozan.The creatures that similar the sponges is called Cnidarian.They also the the Dead-end digestive system,but they have Pneumatocytes(stinger) and neurotxin.

Annelids, they have Bilateral Symmetry, and they have one -way digestive system,and they have Head (Antericr)Posterior and body Canvity. Their class creatures are Earthworms and Polychaetes. Mollusk, they also have Bilateral Symmetry and one-way digestive system, but their body was divided by 3 body plans, this three parts are foots,Visceral massand head. Bivalvia, Gastropods and Cephalopods are the creatures of the Mollusk.

Arthropods, like the Annelids and Mollusk, they have Bilateral Symmetry and One-way Digestive system and Coelom, but their body plan is segmented and jointed Appendages head and Exoskeleton. Arthropods have seven kind of creatures, Millipedses, Centipedes, Insect, Cirustanceuns, Arachnids, Horsehoe Crabs and Sea Spiders. Vertebare, a creatures who have Bilateral Symmetry one-way digestive systems and Coelom,it just like the Arthropods, but they have the Spinalcord. The five class creatures of Vertebrae are Fish, Amphobian, Reptiles, Avies(Birds) and Mammals.

Although they are different phylum, they also have similiar thing, e.g. Jellyfish and Anthozan(Sponges and Cnidarian).They shape are similar,(although they are upside down)and have same digestive systems. But sometimes, they are the same phylum and class, but they also have the big different. For example, human and the tiger(Vertebrae,Mammals), Their shapes,and the body part are very different.

At last, I think that this Lab report are so interesting but hard, when i try to figure out which one is the ture Phylum and Class. And i know the interesting in this lab, the creatures was like near the human, it will be more smart, otherwise, they will easy to died.

Li, Johnny

Arthropods and Vertebrates are very much different than alike. Arthropods have many characteristics that vertebrates don't have. Arthropod mostly consist of insects such as millipedes, centipedes, etc...

Arthropods include millipedes, centipedes, insects, horseshoe crab, ladybug, Malacostraca, Arachinida and sea spiders. Millipedes in Latin means thousand legs, they also has two pairs of legs. Centipedes and millipedes are similar in ways. Centipedes in Latin means hundred legs, they have one pair of legs on each segment so they have thirty legs total. Malacostraca includes shrimps, and pill bug. Arachinida includes scorpions, mites, and spiders. These Arthropods all have one thing in common. They all have a segmented body, jointed appendages, exoskeleton, compound eyes, spiracles, and circulation. These arthropods have three parts; the three-body parts are head, thorax, and abdomen. Arthropods are most likely to be carnivores because of their food web and food variety of their habitat.

Vertebrates are animals with vertebrates. They have one of the most advanced nervous in the animal kingdom. Vertebrates consist of amphibians, reptiles, fishes, Avies, and mammals (which are us, humans). Amphibian are aquatic animals, they are cold blooded and lay eggs. Amphibians also have two pairs of limbs. Reptiles are also cold blooded and have two pairs of limbs. Reptiles have scales like a fish but doesn't consider as a fish. Fishes have scales and aquatic. They also have two limbs and lay eggs. Avies are bird, they have feathers and warm-blooded. Similar to most animals, they have two pairs of limbs also. Mammals are one of the most evolved animal, they have fur or give milk. Mammals are also warm blooded. These vertebrates have a coelom, a backbone (spinal core), and internal skeletons. Most of them have two limbs.

Arthropods and vertebrates both have a bilateral symmetry. They also have a one-way digestive system, which means they eat in one end and come out the anus. Arthropods and vertebrates have their differences. Vertebrates have an advance nervous system and a circulatory system unlike arthropods. Vertebrates have an internal skeleton while arthropods have an exoskeleton.

Jing Liang

In the animal kingdom there are a lot of phyla. The ones that we learn were sponges, Cnidaria, Annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrates. Cnidarians were the jellyfish, Annelida were the worms, mollusks were the animals that have shells like clams and snails, arthropods are the bugs, and vertebrates are the amphibians, reptiles, Avies, mammals, and fish.

Sponges have a dead-end digestive system like the Cnidarians. It has a asymmetrical symmetry meaning left and right of the body is not the same. It is also anchored in one spot. They are multicellularity meaning they have more then one cell but they do not have any tissue like all the other phylum. They are the only one that is choanocytes.

Cnidaria has a radial symmetry meaning that if a cut it in half from any angle that cuts through the middle, it will be the same. They have a dead-end digestive system like the sponges. They also have neumatocytes which they use to sting their prey. Some of the class in this phylum are jellyfish and sea anemones.

Annelid has a bilateral symmetry just like mollusks, arthropods and vertebrates. Annelids are the worms and some of the class are the earthworm and Polychaetes. Polychaetes are the marine worms. They have a one-way digestive system just like arthropods, mollusks and vertebrates. They are segmented and have body cavity.

Mollusks have a bilateral symmetry and a one way digestive system. They also have coelom made from mesentery. They got a good nervous system. Some of the class are bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods. Bivalves are the ones with 2 shells like clams and oyster. Gastropods are the ones with 1 shell like snails. Cephalopods has head and foot.

Arthropods are the bugs. They have bilateral symmetry and a one-way digestive system. They have jointed appendages like the vertebrates. They also have a exoskeleton meaning there skeleton is on the outside. Some of the class in arthropods are millipedes, centipedes, insects, arachnids, crustaceans, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.

Vertebrates are the animals that have a back bone. They are bilateral symmetry and has a one-way digestive system. They have coelom just like mollusks. They have a internal skeleton meaning that they have a inside skeleton. The classes are amphibians, reptiles, Avies, mammals, and fish. Amphibians are slimy animals they dry out easily. They breath through their skins and they lay eggs. Reptiles has thick skin call scales. They lay eggs. Avies are birds. They have feathers and lay eggs. They are warm blooded. Mammals has fur or hair and are warm blooded. They are internal fertilization and have milk. Fish have scales and lay eggs. They have gills.

These are the many things about the animal kingdom and there are similar in some of the phylum and there are soiree difference. The most advance phylum are the vertebrates and the most simple are the sponges.

Dennis Lim

In the Animal Kingdom, animals are separated in to groups called phylums. Each phylums has it's own characteristics and there own body behaviors. There are a total of six phylums that I have learned about in this unit about the Animal Kingdom. The six units are the sponges, cnaidarian, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrates. Each one of the phylums has it's own class in it except for the sponges.

The sponge's body structure is asymmetrical. They have a dead-end digestive system. They eat and digest the same way. Sponges are anchored to the land meaning they cannot move to another place even if it is it get food. Sponges get food by using a celia called a choanocyte to get their food.

The cnidarian's body structure is radial symmetry. It has a dead-end digestive system. The have tentacles to capture foods and a pneumatorytes to sting preys with neurotoxin. The cnidarian has two classes; the jellyfish and the anthozoan. The jellyfish floats, are bell-shaped, and is clear. The arthozoan is upside down jellyfish, not clear, and is attached.

The annelid's body structure is bilateral symmetry. They have a one-way digestive system. They have a anterior, posterior, body cavity and a digestive system. The two classes of this phylum are earthworms and polychaetes. The earthworms are detritavores. They also have no limbs and lives on land. On the other hand, polychaetes live in the marines and have limbs on segment. Polychaetes are carivores unlike the earthworms.

Like the annelids, the mollusk also has a bilateral symmetry body structure and a one-way digestive system. The mollusk phylum has a body plan foot, visceral mass, a head, and a coelum made from mesoderm. The mollusk has three separate classes; the bivalves, gastoropods, and the cephalopods. The bivalves have a three-layered shell, siphon, gills, and mantles. They also have an abductor muscle, and hinge lingments. The bivalves are planktavores. The gastropods also have a shell. They live possibly anywhere in the world. Like the bivavles, the gastropods also have gills. The cephalopods have mantle, gills, arms, and tentacles. Unlike the others, the cephalopods have suckers or hooks.

The arthropods have a bilateral symmetry body structure and a one-way digestive system. Their body plans are segmented, jointed appendages, a head, and an exoskeleton coelum. The arthropods have seven different classes. The classes are millipedes, centipededs, insects, crustaceans, arachinids, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders. The millipedes have two pairs of legs per segments. They are herbivores. The centipedes are both herbivores and carnivores. They have sex legs on thorax and a head. The insects have a thorax and one pair of abdomen. The arachnids have eight legs, a head, and an abdomen. They are carivores, The horseshoe crab's head is shaped like a horseshoe.

The last phylum we learned about is the vertebrates. They also have a bilateral symmetry body structure. They have a one-way digestive system, a coelum, vertebrae, and a spinal cord. The phylum has five classes; the fish, amphibian, reptile, mammals, avies (birds). The fish lives in a marina with fresh water: Most of them have two limbs. The amphibians have eggs dorsal, ventral fins and gills. The reptiles have two pairs of limbs, thin skin, and eggs. The mammals have scales and eggs. Mammals are warm-blooded, has eggs, furs, and milk. Mammals have an internal fertilization. Mammals are also warm-blooded. The avies have feathers and has two pairs of limbs. Avies are coldblooded.

Throughout this unit of the Animal Kingdom, I have come to the verdict that their body structure and the way it works separate animals to what phylum they belong to; not by their size. I also learn that even though some animals are in the same phylum, they are in another different class. I also learn that even though they are in different phylum and class, they also share similarities.

Diana Merino

There are a lot of types invi-art Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusks, arthropods and Vertebrates. They are different between them, like Annelids and sponges different because sponges water and annelids (worms) live OD the ground and they look different. Some of them are similar they live in the same places and their like sponges and water and some vertebrates like fishes. Some of them looks like there the same to even though their not.

Sponges live on the ocean they look like little tubes. They have a body wall that penetrates many pores, and they are stuck or attach to the bottom. of the sea other Other submerged on the surface, like on a rock. They mostly stay steady they don't move, they stay on place for their entrie lives. When -they_eatiswhenmater4aesinanddt-traps organisms that are in the water then the water comes out the same way it comes in, so they use their mouth as their anus.

Cnidarians which are jelly fish. Most have tentacles, they live on the sea and their are a lot of them that lok different even though though they are the same orgadism They are kind of clear and they have like purple or light blue mix. Jelly fish are predators they sting their prey with their tentacles. Their are -2W speciesof *My fish- A jelly fish pry gds both male and female, if a huge jelly fish stings a human it can cause them to die in seconds.

The Annelids, which are worms, they are familiar to all earthworms. some annelids live on fresh w7ater-.They 2,000 species of annelids. that have have been known. They eat and trough it back out by their mouth which is their anus to. Polychaetas are marines they live on the ocean. Some swim and they are predators they use their jaws to feed on other small animals. Annelids as polychaetas are same species.

Mollusks andlot in common -even though they donl. Some of the mollusks are marines, and they live on fresh water. They have 3 body plan foot, visceral-.mass.andzoelom. Their are different mollusks different kinds of names like snails, .oysters, octopuses and others. The bivalves have 2 shells (valves) which are layered by Fthe There are 1,000 species of bivalvia gastropods is the-class of snails and slugs, they only have one single shell, they live everywhere they also have gills and lungs. There are SO,-OW species of the class class gastropods. The cephalopods octopuses,'. squids, cuttlefishes, and nautiluses. Their are 600 species of the class cephalopoda. They-havzamantle,gills,_arms,_and tentacles.

The arthropods are animals like insects like spiders and beattles. Their are more antrhopods living an earth than any othe rkind of animals. Arthropods is the class of insect which are insects and they eat plants. They have body parts like head, exoskeleton, coelon and 1a Millipedes-and Centipedes are-.nthropods that have a lot of legs, most-of them have.hard skin. They had also evolved from annelids so they have some kind of relation.

Vertebrates are animals like fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vertebrates have a back bone the .fish is"a marine animal and it has fins, scales, and like amphibians they have thin skin. So that is why some of them must reproduce in water or be moist. The amphibians are animals like snake those don't need to be nn water they are warm blooded. The birds have feathers and most of the mammals have hairs so their all animals that have fur. and they are cold blooded.

A lot of this classes have things in common and some don't. Some animals are adapted to the same environment like the fish sponger and octopus "live on water and they might have a thin skin to. Some of the animals have a different adaptations than others, for example the spiders soave of them live on on the .desert where-is dry Others.-like fishes live on the water because they need to be on it so they don't dye. by doing this essay I learned more beause I read a lot of the information that was -on-the book and I -saw plenty of more different stuff that they have.

Cherry Ann Mendoza

Throughout the "Animal Kingdom" labs and assignments that we've been through, I've noticed the differences and similarities between the major groups of animals. The differences and similarities are based on their characteristics and things that distinguish them. In this essay, I will be comparing and contrasting Sponges, Cnidaria, Annelids, Molluska, Arthropods, and Vertebrates the best I can.

Sponges are anchored all their lives. In that case, they just have to wait until food (plankton) come to them. They have dead-end digestive systems. When it comes to its form, they are considered asymmetrical. Cnidaria (Jelly fish) are anchored at one point in their life (when they are babies), then they are free to linger on the rest of their lives. They have dead-end digestive systems too. When it comes to its form, they are radial symmetrical (round.) It uses its tentacles to get food by strangling fishes with them. Sea anemones (upside down jelly fish that are stuck onto rocks) on the other hand, are anchored but they too have tentacles. Annelids have an anterior and posterior. They have one-way digestive systems (mouth separated from anus.) When it comes to its form, they are considered as bilateral symmetrical. Earthworms are land dwellers, while Polychaetes are marine; earthworms are detritivores and bacteriavore, while Polychaetes are carnivores; and earthworms does not have appendages while Polychaetes does. Molluska have one-way digestive systems. They have three part body plans: visceral mass, head, and foot. When it comes to its form, they are bilateral symmetrical. They have a body cavity and a true coelom. Part of the Molluska group are Bivalvia (clams), Cephalopods (octopus and squids), and Gastropods (snails.) Arthropods also have one-way digestive systems. They are bilateral, and they have a exoskeleton. They are segmented just like annelids. They have jointed appendages. Arthropods have seven classes. Vertebrates have one-way digestive systems. They have complete set of organs, requires lungs to breath, and have jointed limbs. They too are bilateral.

All in conclusion, based on my observations, I realized that most of them were bilateral. Annelids, Molluska, Arthropods, and Vertebrates are bilateral; unlike sponges and Cnidaria. Some are terrestrial while some are marine. Their characteristics may differ or be the same in different ways, but at the end they all belong to the animal kingdom.

Ashley Mooring

There are many different creatures in this world. One creature that lives under the water is called Phylum (Sponges). They are anchored to the ground. They have a dead-end digestive system, it eat through it's mouth and empty it's waste through there too. They eat plankton, they move their bodies with the waves of the water, they catch the little particles in the water. Another one that lives in the water is called Cnidaria (Jellyfish). They have a dead-end digestive system also. They eat small fish that come near them. They sting them with their tentacles. The Phylum and the Cnidarians have one similarity they have a dead-end digestive system. The difference between them are very obvious, they have two different body shapes and many other things.

Another creature is called an Annelids (Worms). They live on the land. They have a one way digestive system, it's head is separated from it's bottom. It is bilateral symmetry, they live under the dirt. They eat little particles of things they can find . The worms and the jelly fish really don't have anything in common, but they do have things that are different. Like there digestive systems. The Mollusk (Calm) is another creature that lives in the water. It has a one way digestive system, it is bilateral. It has a foot to bury itself under the sand. It eats by separating the sand from the food. What the Mollusk has in common with the Annelids are that they both have a one way digestive system and they both are bilateral symmetry. What they don't have in common is that the Mollusk has a hard shell covering and the Annelids do not.

Another creature is Arthropods, They are also known as insects. They eat their food by catching it. Some use they fangs, webs, stinger and many other things. They have a one way digestive, system and are bilateral symmetry. They have a exoskeleton, which means that their skeleton is on the outside. They have jointed appendages and they are segmented. Some of them have compound eyes. They have a Nervous, Reproductive, and Circulatory system. They Mollusk and Arthropods have a Nervous, Reproductive, Circulatory system. They both have a one way digestive system. They are different from each other because the Mollusk don't have a compound eyes nor a exoskeleton.

Another one is Chordates (Vertebrates). They live on land and eat by catching their food. They have a one way digestive system and bilateral symmetry. They have an Nervous, reproductive, Circulatory system. They Tissues and Muscles in the inside of their body. They have a internal skeleton which means that their skeleton is in the inside unlike the Arthropods. They also have jointed appendages. The Arthropods and the Vertebrates have the same systems.

David Nguyen

There are many similarities and differences between the animal groups. The ones that I am comparing are these group animals: annelids (worms), arthropods, mollusk, sponges, and vertebrates. These groups are going to be compared and contrast. Either the groups have things that are similar or differences. There are many different answers between all of them. Their lifestyles, description and other things about them will be compared and contrast.

Sponges are very different from the rest of the phyloms. All of these animals have a symmetry. Sponges are assymetrical symmetry while the annelids, mollusk, vertebrates, and arthropods all have bilateral symmetry so that makes the sponges different from the rest of the animal groups. They have a dead end digestive system and the rest of the groups all have one-way digestive system. There aren't that many similarities between the sponges and the rest of the animals but one of the similarities are that both the arthropods and sponges filter food particles from water by trapping them in their choanocycte. The food is then digested inside the cells. A type of sponge is the jellyfish and they digest food in their digestive cavity. They use pneumatocytes (stings the prey) to capture the food. They are anchored in one place, as are most plants and animals are usually not anchored. They are neuro toxin. They catch food in a way that the others do very differently.

Annelids, known as worms are similar to the rest of the groups except the sponges in that they have a bilateral symmetry and that they have a one way digestive system. they have an interior and a posterior. One type of annelid is the earthworm. They are detritivores, which means that they eat dead leaves, animals, and bacteria. Its segments have limbs. There are many groups of worms. The two main ones are the polychaetes and the oligochaetes. They are different from the rest of the groups in that they have eight and no other animals have the same amount. The annelids and the arthropods are both segmented.

Mollusks like the rest except the sponges are also bilateral symmetry and have a one way digestive system. One type of mollusk is a bivalve clam. It has a very good nervous system. Since it lives in water, it has gills for it to breathe. A bivalve means two valves or shells. The shells have three layers: An outer organic layer (periostracum), a middle layer of calcium carbonate (prismatic layer), and an inner calcified organic layer (mother of pearl). They live in the ocean or land on top of the rocks. The mollusk and the arthropods both have coelom but the coelom from the mollusk is made from messentary. The two most important type of mollusk group is the cephalopods and the gastropods.

Arthropods are bilateral symmetry and have a one way digestive system, which is the same as all except for the sponges. Like the mollusk they too have a coelom. It is segmented, has a head, jointed appendages, and an exoskeleton. A type of arthropod from one of the seven classes is the millipede or the centipede. Arthropods have seven classes. Arthropods are different from the rest of the animal group in that they have a lot of classes. They are more diverse and complex. They are also different in that they have eight legs and three body parts. The body parts are the head, abdomen, and the thorax. They have two pairs of antennas. They are probably different from all the animals from its whole body to the type to its lifestyle.

The vertebrate is another type of animal that is very different from the rest. Some classes of vertebrates are amphibians, reptiles, avies which are birds, fish, and mammals. Humans are mammals. They are bilateral symmetry and have a one way digestive system like the animals except the sponges. They have coelom like the arthropoods and the mollusk. They have a backbone and an internal skeleton. All the vertebrates have lungs so they use the lungs to breathe. Different types of vertebrates are different but they have things in common that they dehydrate and dry out easily. Some lay eggs and some fertilizes and reproduce that way. Mammals develop milk which other vertebrates don't. Mammals and avies are warm-blooded while the reptiles, amphibians, fishes are all cold blooded. Vertebrates come in many types. There are a lot of species of vertebrates. Some of the warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals are similar to the other animal groups.

Nancy Nguyen

The Animal Phyla includes sponges, cnidarians, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrates. Each phylum also has different classes. Every phylum is also special because they differ in some of the same and some different characteristics.

Symmetry is one of the characteristics that make each phylum different. Sponges have asymmetrical body. Asymmetrical is when the body has low lack of symmetry. Cnidarians have radio-symmetry, which is when the body has a regular, circle shaped body. Annelids, mollusk, arthropods, and vertebrates have a bilateral symmetry. Bilateral symmetry is when the similar body parts are the same ,e side of a median axis. This means that one side mirrors the other side.

There are two digestive systems that make each of them different. One is called a dead end digestive system and the other one is called a one way digestive system. Dead end digestive system is when food comes in one opening and waste comes out the same opening. One way digestive system is where food goes in one opening and it goes through the body and out in another opening. Sponges and cnidarians each have a dead end digestive system. Annelids. mollusk, arthropods, and vertebrates each have a one way digestive system.

In the cnidarians class, there is the jellyfish and Anthozoans. In the annelids class there is the earthworm and Polychaetes. Mollusk includes bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods. Arthropods include millipedes, centipedes; and insects. "Vertebrates include crustacean, arachnids, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds. and mammals.

Another thing that makes them different are some various things. Sponges feed on plankton by their filter. Cnidarians catch food by using neumatocytes (neurotoxins). They have a very simple nervous system and they can detect light and detect motion good. Annelids are detritivores and carnivores. They have a more complex nervous system and a body cavity. Mollusks have a good circulatory system and a good nervous system. Arthropods have a segmented body and jointed appendages. They also have an advanced nervous system. Vertebrates have spinal cord and an internal skeleton. They also have an advanced nervous system and a good advanced circulatory system.

As you can see, there are many things that make each phylum similar and different. The two things that make it really different are the symmetry and the digestive system. I learned a lot about each phylum.

Mina Pan

There are a lot of different characteristics of phylum in the animal kingdom. Each characteristics has its own body structure, the way they capture their prey, the way they digest, and more. The characteristics that we have studied are sponges, cnideria (jelly fish), annelids (worms), mollusks (clams), and the characteristic with the largest amount of classes, anthropods (insects). We're studying about all these different kinds of characteristics because we wanted to learn how to observe and describe the body structures, habitats, and digestive system and to see how each type of characteristics works. Since all these kinds of characteristics looks so different, I'm going to compare and contrast them as you read on.
Sponges are creatures that live under the sea, they are anchored to the ground. They have asymmetry shaped body. They also have a dead-end digestive system (like the jelly fish), it sucks water into its mouth and traps the planktons (food) with its cilia. After it digests, its remains also come out from the mouth. Sponges have no body cavities unlike the mollusks (clams).

Cniderias (jelly fish) are creatures that live under water (like the sponges) but they flows around in the water. They have a radial symmetry system unlike other characteristics. Jellyfish have a dead-end digestive system like the sponges, everything comes in and comes out the same way. They use their tentacles to stig their prey with pnematocyts. Jellyfish also digest very slowly. There's also the sea annemies that works the same way as jellyfish but they're anchored to the ground and they look like an up-side-down jellyfish.

Annelids (worms) are creatures that live underground. They move by detecting its light source. They have a bilateral symmetry (unlike the cnideria and the sponges) because you could see the anterior and posterior very clearly shown on its body structure. Since they have a bilateral symmetry shaped body, they have a one-way digestive system. Annelids have a segmented body. There's a heart in which of the segments expect for the anterior, posterior, and digestive parts because they need room for those. Annelids could be detritavores or carnivores. Detritavores are earthworms that live underground and eat tiny organisms from the sand's surface. Earthworms have no appendages attach to them. Carnivores are polychaetes (worms that lives under water) and eat only meat. Polychaetes have appendages attach to the anterior part.

Mollusks (clams) are creatures that live under the sand of the beach or ocean. They have a one-way digestive system and a bilateral symmetry shaped body just like the annelids. Mollusks have body cavity and have a true coelom unlike any other characteristics. The mollusks have a more advance nervous and circulatory system. For the clams, they have two shells on the outside that's connected by the muscles on its side. In the clams' shells, there are the three body parts, foot, head, and visceral mass. Clams also have 3 layers called the organic layer, middle layer, and a mother of pearl layer. Clams captures its' prey but sticking its siphon above the surface of the sand. As the water comes, it uses its siphon to suck in the water. When the water is sucked in, it separates the planktons (food) from the waste. All the waste and remains will go out another siphon. Clams move by using its foot and walk around under the sand.

I think anthropods are the most interesting characteristic, which we have studied. Anthropods are the characteristic, which have the most classes. Anthropods are found in any parts of the world. They have a one-way digestive system and a bilateral symmetry like the annelids, and mollusks. They also have segmented body like the annelids. Anthropods have joined appendages like the polychaetes. Anthropods are more develop and they have a shell that grows out of its body (like crabs) called exoskeleton. Anthropods have a total of seven different classes. Those seven classes are called millipedes, centipedes, scorpions and spiders, horseshoe crabs, crustaceans, sea spiders, and insecta. Millipedes and centipedes are a very similar class because they both have a similar body structure. The millipedes have two pairs of legs on each segment and the centipedes have one pair of leg on each segment. Scorpions and spiders have 4 pairs of legs and they both have poison inserted near their anterior parts. Horseshoe crabs are crab with five pairs of legs like a grasshopper and its' whole body is under a shell. A horseshoe crab's tail is usually used to balance itself. Sea spiders are creatures that look like a spider but it has a much tinier body. Sea spider has every body parts that are attached to its body. Insectas are a group of creature that has wings, shells, and jointed appendages, which grows out from its body.

After comparing and contrasting all those different characteristics I found out that all creatures would have at least one thing similar to the others no matter how different they look. When I think more into the different characteristics, the more similar it will get. After I have finished written this essay, I have learned how the characteristics are connected and I know more information about them.

Jessica Ramos

In the animal kingdom there are many Phyla. These phyla can be broken down by their characteristics. Take for example there are 2 ways they can be separated because one group has bilateral, the other has radical symmetry and the last one is asymmetrical. So right from the start that separates the phyla from each other. There are also things like the digestive system. These are all things that make them different from each other.

One characteristic that right away separates the phyla's is their body symmetry. There are bilateral, radical and asymmetrical. Bilateral is basically mirror images of the body. Which means that the right side is a mirror image of the left side. Asymmetrical is when the body has low lack of symmetry. Radical symmetry is when the basic body shape is in a circle. The jellyfish is a perfect example of radical symmetry. Arthropods, vertebrae, worms, and mollusks belong to bilateral symmetry. Last but not least is the sponge, which goes to the asymmetrical group.

Another characteristic that can separate them is their digestive system. The dead-end and the one-way digestive system. The dead-end is where food goes in to one hole and comes out of the same hole it went in through. Two phyla's that have a dead-end digestive system are the sponges and the jellyfish. The one-way digestive system is when food goes in one hole and goes through the digestive system and out through another hole. 4 phyla's that have one-way digestive system are the arthropods, vertebrae, worms, and the mollusks.

One more characteristic that separates the phyla's more, other then their body symmetry and their digestive system is their segmentation. Other then the arthropods having their bilateral symmetry and their one-way digestive system their also segmented. Segmentation is where the animals are divided into segments. Another phyla that also has segmentation is the worms (annelids). Their body is also segmented.

All of these animals have a different body plan. Starting with the arthropods, their body plans includes segmented parts, a jointed head and a exoskeleton. All vertebras have a spinal cord. Sponges are anchored and have no body cavity. The jellyfish captures food with their tentacles. They are also clear, and have a bell shaped body. Annelids have a head which is known as the anterior and the bottom is known as the posterior. They also have a nervous system. Mollusks have a 3 part body plan: foot, visceral mask, and head.

I learned that there are 6 different phyla's. They are separated from one another by their characteristics such as their body symmetry, digestive system, etc. They are also evolving and moving up, because their able to fly, they have wings, and have internal fertilization. I also learned that ether all advanced in one way or another. Also through time they are getting more classes of phyla as they are moving up on the line of evolution. Their all different in their own ways but they come together in the animal kingdom and that what makes them similar.

David Ross

The Animal Kingdom is at once the Kingdom most and least familiar to us. Almost all of the animals we commonly think of. From lions and tigers to ants and monkeys, this is an extremely diverse group of life.

Sponges are filters. They eat mostly plankton. Sponges are asymmetrical. They have dead-end digestive systems, which means that the food and waste out of the same place it came from. They have no body cavity and are hermaphrodites. This is a pretty simple species, but annelids are much more advanced when it comes to versatility.

Annelids are segmented worms from the family Phylum Annelida. One of the most commonly knows member of this family is the earthworm. Earthworms have 150 segments. They have dorsal pores at each segment between each two. Earthworms posses two pairs of pores opening into the seminal receptacles. During mating, it coats the eggs with mucus for egg development. Earthworms eat decaying vegetation, through their mouths, into the pharynx, goes to the esophagus and in the stomach until it reaches the anus. Earthworms have multiple hearts in more than one segment. They also have respiratory and circulatory systems. Annelids have bilateral symmetry and they have a one way digestive system. They are detrivores and carnivores. However they don't have a central nervous system. Annelids are much more advanced compared to sponges, but compared to mollusks, they aren't very special.

Mollusks have bilateral symmetry. They also have one way digestive systems. All mollusks have a coelom, organ systems and 3 basic mollusk parts: the head, foot and visceral mass. Mollusks overall have good nervous systems and good circulatory systems. Mollusks are the first group to actually develop a true coelom. Many animals after the mollusk now have body cavities. The arthropods have even better systems than mollusks.

Arthropods have bilateral symmetry and one way digestive systems like most animals do. In fact, 75% of all animals belong to the phylum arthropods (which also includes spiders and insects). All arthropods have a hard exoskeleton made of chiton, a type of protein. This shell provides protection for the animals, and gives support for the attachment of the arthropod's muscles. Although arthropods grow, their exoskeletons do not grow with them. So they must periodically shed, or "molt" their exoskeletons in favor of a new one. Arthropods ("arthro" meaning joint, and "pod" meaning leg) also have jointed appendages. Lost limbs can gradually be regenerated after successive moltings. Arthropods have only one heart and head region. They also have very good circulatory systems and respiratory systems. This is a very advance species, but one more type surpasses it. They just so happen to be vertebrates.

Vertebrates have bilateral symmetry and one way digestive systems. They all have coeloms and vertebras. All of them also have very advanced nervous systems and good circulatory systems. They inhabit all regions of the earth. Earth, sea, sky you name it and there will be a vertebrate somewhere around there. They are omnivores, carnivores and herbivores.

Sam Tang

In class we did a section of dissecting animals called "Animal Kingdom." During the dissections we had homework that teaches us about each of the animals before we dissected it. So we learned all the parts of the animals and then we identified the parts of each animal while dissecting it. When we were done with the dissecting eve would draw it and label it. So now we know a lot more about the animals that we studied. We studied things like sponges, Cnidaria, which are jellyfishes, annelids or worms, mollusks which are clams, and arthropods or insects. Now we are able to compare each animal to each other.

Sponges have a dead end digestive system. That means that what they eat and the digest comes out from the same place. What also have the dead end digestive system is Cnidaria. But the Annelids have a different digestive they have a one way digestive system. That means that the mouth is separate from the anus. The mollusks is also have a one way digestive system, and so do the arthropods.

Cnidaria are radially symmetrical. That means they are circular. The Sponges are not radially symmetrical but they are asymmetrical. Asymmetrical means that that class is not symmetry at all. Mollusks are not any of them but they are bilaterally symmetrical. Bilateral symmetry means that the left part of the dog and the right part of a dog is the same, then it is bilaterally symmetrical. What is also bilaterally symmetrical is the arthropods.

Annelids body's are segmented. Which are different from the other classes. But each are replaced with something different. Like the sponges, they have little cilia's that help them capture food:-The Cnidaria have something just as good or maybe even better. They have tentacles that use neuro-toxins to help capture it's prey. Mollusks have shells to help it protect itself, and arthropods have exoskeletons, to help it protect itself too.

From this whole lab I learned a lot. I learned more about animals and got to know their inside parts a lot more better. Also I learned a lot of characteristics from each class of animals. Like if they were anchored or mobile. Or if they had shells or not, and stuff like that. 5o all together I learned a lot about these animals and which class they came from.

Lanishia Thomas

The Animal Kingdom has lots of characteristic in their colum. Sponges, Anneldis, and Arthoropods are similar. They both have the same things in them. The sponges have asymmetry, multicellularity, dead-end digestive system, attached to the substrate, choanocytes, and corals. Them are all characteristic. Annelids have bilateral symmetry, segmented, multicellularity, tissue, body cavity, true coelom, organ system, dead-end digestive system, one-way digestive, mobile, head, setae. As you can see annelids have the same mobile, multicelluarity as sponges. Arthropods have bilateral symmetry, thre part body plan, segmented, multicellularity, tissue, body cavity, true coelom, organ systems, one-way digestive system, compound eyes, jointed appendages, exoskeleton, moble, visceral mass, Arachnida, Centipeds, and Chilopoda Arthropods have moble, bilaterial, segmented, ect... just like annelids. Sponges, Annelids and Arthropods are similar because they have at least 4-6 same characteristic in them. Its like they kinda function the same way. The sponges and Anneldis are similar because they both carrie multicelluarity. Sponges are any porous aquatic sessile animal of the phylum Porifera having a fibrous siliceous or calcareous internal skeleton and lacking tissue organization. The skelton of cerain sponges readily absorbing water and becoming soft when we while retaingin toughness. Sponges and Anneldis are different from each other, because 1-13 characteristics more than sponges. Arthropods are any invertebrate of the of the Arthropod having a segmented body, jointed limbs, and a mineralized chitinous shell covering. Sponges and Arthropods are different from each other because Arthropods have symmetry and a three-part body plan, have tissue and an organ system. their similar to each other because they both have mulicellularity. Sponges don't really carrie a lot of things into their bodys. Annelids are any segmented worm of the phylum Annelida, which includes the earthworms, leeches, and various marine forms. In some ways their different and some ways their not.

Bich Ha Tran

There are many different pieces of animals on over the world. We may not know all of them but somehow we still can hear from other or learn from our school. Animals are an important part that helps balance the circulatory system of the world and supply food to humans. Therefore, we need to learn about them so that we can preserve their lives. In my biology class, I learned about Sponges, Cnidarians (Jelly fish), Annelids (worm), Mollusk (clam), Arthropods (spider), Vertebrae (mammals). Now, let see the differences and similar from those animals.

First, we see their similar characteristics. The sponges and the Cnidarians have dead end digestive system. That means they eat in and throw out by the same way. They don't have body cavity. They live in the sea or ocean. They are anchored because the Anthozoan (emaciation's class) always attaches to the rock and they will die without the rocks. So they capture prey by water. Sponges, Jellyfish and Annelids are detritavores or carnivores. Annelids, Mollusk, Arthropods, and Vertebrae have bilateral symmetry. They have one-way digestive system. They have head. They have body cavity. They live everywhere. They are herbivores or carnivores except Mollusk. They have coelom except Annelids. They have segmented body except mollusk and vertebrae. Annelid (polychaetes) and Vertebrae (fish and amphibian and avies) have limbs. Arthropods and Vertebrae have legs.

Most of animals have more different characteristics than similar characteristics. The sponges are asymmetrical. The Cnidarians has radial symmetry. Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Vertebrae have Bilateral symmetry. Sponges and Cnidarians have dead end digestive system and don't have body cavity but Annelids, Mollusk, Arthropods, and Vertebrae have one-way digestive system and body cavity. Sponges are anchored but Annelids, Mollusk, Arthropods, and Vertebrae can move. Sponges and Cnidarians, Annelids don't have coelom and head but Mollusk, Arthropods, and Vertebrae have coelom and head. Sponges capture preys by choanocyte (cilia) but Cnidarians capture prey by tentacles and neurotoxin (make the preys can't move). Annelids and Arthropods have segmented body but others don't have. Mollusk has foot. Arthropods have legs. Vertebrae and polychaetes of Annelids have limbs. Sponges and Cnidarians don't have foot and legs and limbs. Mollusks have shells, visceral mass but others don't have. Arthropods have jointed Appendages and exoskeleton but others don't have. Vertebrae have vertebrae and spinal cord but others don't have. Sponges and Cnidarians don't have digestive system but others have. Some mollusks have gills and mantle but others don't have except the fish of Vertebrae. Vertebrae have cold or warm blood but others don't have. Vertebrae (Avies and mammals) have feathers but others don't have. Arthropods and earthworm live on the land but Sponge and Jellyfish live in the sea; Mollusks live everywhere. Annelids have the most advanced nervous system. Arthropods have abdomen but others don't have. Vertebrae (fish, Amphibian, Reptiles) have eggs but others don't have. Mollusks (Bivalves) are planktavores. Jellyfish Arthropods and Vertebrae are herbivores or carnivores.

The world is so beautiful. It creates a lot of natural lives for people, plants, and animals. Those relate very tight to one another to balance the circulatory system. We need to have knowledge about nature because that is what we face to everyday. We also need to preserve it. Animals are the first title that I have learned in class. They are interesting because I didn't know about them before.

Helen Tran

Throughout the unit, Animal Kingdom I have learned more about each phylum. We have named the major groups in the animal kingdom and also had to describe the anatomy of the animals. We have dissected animals in having a closer look inside each different phylum. Through my perspective it was very nasty and I have to admit I almost couldn't handle it but at the end I ended up having fun. Also I have seen more inside of a phylum more than I expected to see. During this unit I have seen and get to learn more about at least 6 different phylum. I have also learned their similarities and differences, like their digestive systems, body parts, and etc. Like the Sponges, Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Vertebrae who each has their own characteristic that is similar yet some how different from each other which makes each phylum interesting to get to know about.

In this unit, we started off reading about the Sponges in out textbook. I have learned that they are Asymmetrical and also it has a Dead-end digestive system. The Sponges uses something called the cilia to capture its food and also the sponges are anchored in one spot. Unlike the Sponges there is the Cnidarians who has a Radio Symmetry body. Like the Sponges the Cnidarians has a dead-end digestive system, but it capture its prey by using pneumatocytes which stings its prey and effect the nerves system. An example of Cnidarians would be the jellyfishes and the Sea Anemones, which are like the jellyfish, but it is stuck upside down.

Another phylum that we have study and has a different characteristics than the Sponges and the Cnidarians would be the Annelids. The Annelids has a bilateral symmetric body, which means that they have an Anterior in another word the head, posterior (butt) and etc. The Annelids is also different from the Sponges and Cnidarians because they have a one-way digestive system and it has body cavity also it has many hearts in another word it is segmented. A class from this phylum would be the earthworms. The earthworms have a segment body and have many hearts. Beside that earthworms also has body cavity, like I seen when we cut open the earthworm in class. Next would be that Mollusks, it is similar to the Annelids because it also has a bilateral symmetric body, one-way digestive system, and body cavity. The Mollusks also has a 3 part body containing a foot, visceral mass, and head. Its mouth and anus is lays near each other, unlike the earthworms whose mouth and anus doesn't lays near each other. An example of Mollusks would be the Clams who are in the Bivalves class. It has 2 valves also known as shells, mantle and also has gills. It is Marine and lives in fresh waters.

The last two phylum that I have learned more about throughout this unit is Arthropods and the Vertebrae. The Arthropods is also has a bilateral body just like the Annelids and the Mollusks, and it also has a one-way digestive system, it also has coelom. The Arthropods is segmented like the earthworms but it is jointed appendages and has exoskeleton. The classes millipedes who has 2 pairs of legs, centipedes who has 1 pairs of 100 legs, insects who crawls, flies, and has 3 part of body and 8 legs. The arachnids who has 8 legs and 3 part body and also a carnivores, horseshoe crabs who has a big head, and sea spiders, and etc all part of the Arthropods phylum. Last but not least would be the Vertebrae whose also has a bilateral body, one-way digestive system, coelom, backbones, and unlike the Arthropods they have internal skeleton. We human would be in the mammal class who has hair/fur, is warm-blooded, has internal fertilization, very developed lungs, and produces milk. Class of Amphibians who can be dried out easily, breath through skin, it has simple lungs, not as developed as mammals, and it lay eggs. Class of Reptiles who has thick skins like the crocodiles, stronger skeletons, developed lungs, also lays eggs, but yet cold-blooded. Vertebrae also have the class of Aires, birds, whose has feathers, and lay eggs, also has very developed lungs, and lays eggs. Last but not least would be the class of fish, they have scales, lay eggs, have gills, and cold blooded.

Overall through this unit I have got to understand and have the chance to see most of the different structure each phylum has and learn to be able naming which phylum each classes belongs in. Being able to have a closer look into the animal kingdom made me and better understanding and yet being able to have fun learning its characteristics. So through this essay I have showed how each phylum's are and you should be able to understand how each phylum are differs from one another. Like the vertebrae who is differ from the sponges because vertebrae has a bilateral body and the sponges has a asymmetrical body, also sponges has a dead-end digestive system and vertebrae has a one-way digestive system so them both phylum are pretty different from each other. So that is an example of how two phylum can be different from each other. Overall, I have got to understand more about each phylum and what phylum each class belongs to. Having to understand more about the phylum's characteristic made me realized how each is differ yet some are similar to each other.

Diana Uriarte

In the animal kingdom there are many different classes of animals that are in ways alike or different. Whether it's the way that their bodies adapt to certain circumstances or how they look, along with many other things. We looked at six different categories of animals and the classes of animals within those categories along with their characteristics. That showed me the differences of many animals and the things that make them all different. Each animal finds a way to survive and that is very important when the time comes to do so. They all vary from different shapes, sizes, and colors. The characteristic of each animal is different. Some have a skeleton, some don't have a head, feet, arms, or eyes. Others don't have eyes or have compound eyes like some insects. Each animal is symmetric, asymmetric, radial symmetric or bilaterally symmetric.

Sponges along with Mollusks are asymmetric animals but sponges are not capable of moving from place to place. Sponges are very different from Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Vertebrates. All these animals have tissue unlike the sponge and most of them have a body cavity except for sponges and cnidarians. Sponges are able to absorb water and filter it, by filtering it, it is able to catch it's food because it eats very small organisms. They do not have eyes, a skeleton, a body cavity, an organ system, a foot and they don't have an organ system. All this makes sponges very different from other types of animals that do have these things and or that are able to move around. They also don't have a way to attack other animals but that's probably not necessary for sponges any ways taking into consideration that they aren't predators.

There are some animals like the jellyfish that have a dead end digestive system meaning that both mouth and anus are located at the same spot and used for both things. Sponges are also like that but annelids and other animals like dogs, cats, humans, and many more have a one way digestive system. They have both anus and mouth at different parts of their bodies and each one is used for a different purpose. Jellyfish are mobile and they catch their food by killing it with their tentacles. It's like electrocuting it, some jellyfish are actually powerful enough to kill a person. They are radial symmetric because their head is round at the top, also they are made up of tissue and have no bones in their bodies or an organ system. Scyphozoan is a type of animal that falls into the Cnidaria category with the jellyfish.

Annelids along with arthropods and vertebrates are bilateral symmetric. Also like Arthropods they are segmented and have a one way digestive system. They are mobile like many other animals and have an organ system, a body cavity and tissue. Many of the characteristics of annelids are similar to those of arthropods but arthropods have many animals that fall in that category like: Reptiles, Millipedes, Insecta, Diplopoda, Crustacea, Amphibians and Arachnida. All of those are mobile and have both an internal and exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. Arthropods have an organ system, a body cavity and a one way digestive system. They are also segmented and are made up of tissue like vertebrates. But vertebrates have a true coelom and have mammals as part of the vertebrates. Which means that they also have a one way digestive system, and have a head and feet. They are also mobile and have a skeleton along with jointed appendages.

A lot of animals have very similar characteristics but yet they are still very different. The animal with the most differences might be sponges and arthropods may be the most similar to vertebrates and the other animals are kind of similar to each other and they are also different but no matter what they are all animals and in one way or another they fall into very similar categories. Most animals are made up of tissue and they are all some type of symmetry. All animals have a way to find food even if they all have a different way to do it and that is one thing that they all have in common. So this is the Animal Kingdom and these were the animals that we looked at.

Michael Vo

Each type of classes has different types of descriptions. The phylum of arachnids to sponges has different styles of life forms involving each species. Many which have different types of symmetries such as the sponges has asymmetrical more different than the annelids where they have bilateral symmetry. As the phylum changes is more like evolving due to the fact that each type of species become more complex than the others.

Starting from the ocean as the beginning, sponges are one of the most popular phyla to explain that they have dead-end digestive system meaning they lack complex organs that help them have different organs for different purposes. The Cnidarians (jelly fish) have evolved to the same description as the sponges because that they both have a dead end digestive system like many asymmetrical/ radial symmetry unlike most bilateral symmetry that has one-way digestive system. Both the sponges and cnidarians have a simple, nervous system that helps them sense things.

Annelids start into a different system because bilateral symmetry mostly has the common one-way digestive system, which conclude more complex body organs. Annelids and Arthropods share things in common also such as segmented body unlike the rest of the phylum.

Mollusks come with one-way digestive system like the others (not including the sponges and cnidarians), which means everything they eat comes out the posterior portion of the body. The mollusks also have a coelom not like cnidarians and sponges. Sponges and the Cnidarians are more like outcast. Everything from them is "simple" where everything else has more complex than simple. Mollusks have 3 body parts, which are the foot, visceral mass, and head that gives them a good circulatory system and a well nervous system more well than sponges and cnidarians.

Most different phylum is the vertebrae; they all have different things than the other species for one a vertebral column (back bone) and a spinal cored. Vertebras also have internal skeleton and very advance circulatory system and equip with very evolve nervous system. The bilateral symmetry is the reason for the one-way digestive system, which means vertebras, have an advance digestive system.

Arachnids are different also. Arachnids are insects and crustacean that mostly have 8 legs and holds their prey to make them into a liquid to be able to digest food. Even though they have a one-way digestive system, the arachnids do their digestive from the outside in, instead of eating their prey then letting the stomach come into work automatically.

Brandon Williams

We started this project (unit) to name the major groups in the animal kingdom, and describe the anatomy of the these animals. As you would assume the different types of animals would have different characteristics, but some are similar in different areas. A lot of the different animals have the same type of symmetry, digestive systems, and Coelom.

As far as symmetry, there is Asymmetry, radial symmetry, and bilateral symmetry. Animals such as the Sponge have Asymmetry. Animals like Cnidarians have radial symmetry. Animals like the Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates or (Vertebrates) all share a bilateral symmetry.

There are two types of digestive systems that an animal can have. There is the dead-end digestive system, and the one-way digestive system. The dead-end digestive system is one which the animal eats the food source, then it is digested and through back up by the animal. Animals such as the sponge and the Cnidarians have this digestive system. On the other hand, the one-way digestive system is one which the food source is eating, digested, and goes not the other end of the animals. Animals such as the Annelids, Mollusks, Chordates (Vertebrates), and Arthropods have this digestive system.

As far as the Coelom, the animals with true coelom are the Mollusks, the Arthropods, and the Chordates (Vertebrates). The Sponges, the Cnidarians, and the Annelids do not have it.

In this project (unit) we set out to name the major groups in the animal kingdom, and describe the anatomy of these animals, and truthfully I hope we did. I found not there was a lot I did not know about the animal kingdom. There were something I did not know were even animals. But over all I had fun this unit, and I learned a lot.

Kenny Wong

At this grading period, we learn a lot of things about Animal Kingdom. there are about 6 phylum. they are sponges, cnidarians (jellyfish), Annelid, Mollusk, Arthropods, and Vertebrates. They are all somewhat different from each other.

Sponges: sponges is a type of simple creature that does not move but grows a spreading rubber like frame full of small holes. Sponges are asymmetrical, they have a dead end digestive system. And they have no body cavity. Unlike cnidarians, sponges have no nervous system.

Cnidarians are jelly fishes. they are radial symmetrical. They also have a dead end digestive system. They have neumatocytes to get their prey, and they have a simple nervous system.

Annelids are earthworm and Polychaetes, etc. They have a bilateral symmetrical. They have a one way digestive system. They have segmented body. They can be detritivores and carnivores. Unlike cnidarians and sponges, annelids have a heart and circulatory, and they have body cavities.

Mollusk is a very big phylum. shrimps, clams they are all mollusks. mollusks have a bilateral symmetrical. they all have a one way digestive system, and mostly they are divided into three parts, foot, visceral mass, and head. Mollusk have a good circulatory, and a good nervous system and they all have a coelom. Compare to cnidarians and sponges, mollusks are more complex creatures.

Arthropods are mostly injects. They are bilateral symmetrical. they have one way digestive system. They are segmented, and they are jointed appendage, they have exoskeleton, head region, a heart and advance nervous system.

Vertebrates are the most complex and advance creature in the world. We and other animals are vertebrates. Vertebrates have a bilateral symmetry. They have a one way digestive system. They have coelom, vertebrae and spinal cord, internal skeleton advanced nervous system, and advanced circulatory.

All six phylum are very unique and different from each other, and they also share some of the same facts like digestive system, etc.

Peter Wong

We did an unit on the animal kingdom. During the couple of weeks we learn and dissect animals. We learn about the Annelid which are earthworms. We also learn about the phylum, Arthropods, Mollusks, sponges, and vertebrates. We did some dissections on an earthworm, clam and a frog. We study each animal before we start dissecting them. We took notes on our notebook on what we saw and the differences in them. I learn a lot about Phylum. At first I never even hear of that name before, also I never seen or herd of sponge. It was fun and interesting. I also learn about the digestive system like the one way and the dead-end.

Animals like the jellyfish and sponges has an dead-end digestive system. A dead end digestive system is you eat and waste with the same part. There is another kind of an digestive system. There is another kind of digestive system which is much different from the dead end. That is the one way digestive system. The one way is you eat with your mouth and drop waste from your anus. The mollusk and the annelid also have an one way digestive system, and so do we.

The annelids body is different from others. They have segments that goes around their body like little rings. The sponges have something that is different. The sponges have cilia. The cilia on the sponges help them gather food. It is like a filter. How the Cnidarians get their food is by using their tentacles to stun or capture them, then bring it up to their mouth. They use it as a net so their food would not run away. The tentacles is a good way of protecting itself too. If the enemy gets to close it will get stun or poison like their food. The Mollusks has their own ways of protecting itself. They have an hard shell like an armor. If they close their shell nothing can get in or out. So they predator will get nothing but an hard shell. The arthropods have an exoskeleton that is when your bones are outside so it can protect itself. One of the arthropods that have an exoskeleton is the lobster. The exoskeleton is like an armor for them self, so it would be harder to kill.

The Cnidarians has a radically symmetrical. That is an circular like the jellyfish. The sponge is not an radically symmetrical but they are asymmetrical. Mollusks, dogs, humans, and many other more are Bilateral symmetry. That is when you cut something in half each side will look the same. The arthropods is also bilateral symmetries like the others.

Throughout this unit I learn a lot about different animals. I learn about different things about each species and what they can each do. I learn many things that I never knew about or ever heard. After this unit I look at each animals differently and I think about what they can do. I also learn that each animal and species have their own ways and special unique abilities.

Calvin Yao

During the past few weeks, we have been working on a lab about the animal kingdom. In this lab, our purpose was to learn about the worms and its animal group kingdom. Also be able to name and identify the major groups in the animal kingdom, and describe the anatomy of these animals. There are six main groups in the animal kingdom, that includes sponges, Cnidaria, Annelida, mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrae. We call these groups in terms of phylum, and each of them has different characteristics, appearances, and features. They are all made up of different structures and that's what makes them unique to look at.

Sponges are the simplest animals. There are about 9,000 species of sponges, and most of them live in the sea, but some species live in fresh water. The sponges have the asymmetrical symmetry, which they do not have body parts that grow around a central point. The sponges have a dead-end digestive system, which their waste products will come out from the same place of where they eat food. Also the sponges are anchored in one spot and they use choanocyte to capture food to eat.

The next group is Cnidaria, it has a radial symmetry which body parts grows and arranged around a central point. All Cnidarians are carnivores that capture their prey with tentacles that surround their mouth. Their tentacles have stinging cells called nematocysts, so when they strike their prey, the pneumatocytes within their tentacles will sting the prey and it will not be able to move. Then the Cnidaria will bring the food up to its mouth to eat. One common example of the Cnidarians is jellyfish.

The next one is Annelida, which is a general name for the group of worms. It has a bilateral symmetry, which have four different body parts. The top surface is called the dorsal, the bottom surface is called the ventral, the front end is anterior and the back end is posterior. Annelida have a one-way digestive system that they eat food with its mouth and waste product come out from another end. Annelida are segmented and they have eight hearts. Some of the Annelida species live on land while some live in the ocean.

Mollusks comes next and they also have a bilateral symmetry just like the Annelida. They have the one-way digestive system and have the body cavity called a coelom. Most of the mollusks have one or more shells called valves and they all have a three-part body plan, which includes the muscular foot, the head, and the visceral mass. Some common examples of the mollusks are the clams and the snails.

Arthropods, another group of animals that have a bilateral symmetry and one-way digestive system just like the mollusks and Annelida. Arthropods are segmented and also have a coelom. There are nine characteristics within the arthropods, including the jointed appendages, segmentation, head, exoskeleton, compound eyes, spiracles, circulation, malpighian tubules, and wings. Also the arthropods are divided into seven different classes, which are Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Insecta, Malacostraca, Arachinida, Pycnogonida, and Merostomata. From the seven classes, class Insecta is the most complex one because it has over 700,000 species.

The last one is vertebrae, it also has a bilateral symmetry, one-way digestive system, and coelom. It is divided into five classes, which are amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and fish. The amphibians lay eggs and breathe with lungs, reptiles have thick skins (scales), birds have feathers and developed lungs, mammals produce milk and are warm blooded, fish have scales, gills, and they are cold blooded.

From this lab, I have learnt much more about the groups of animals' features and characteristics. Although it was hard to learn and remember everything about the animal kingdom, but it is actually quite interesting to study about the animals' unique life styles, arid I believe that is very important, because by having more knowledge about the animal kingdom, we will be able to get a better understanding about it and I think that is one of the main reasons of the importance of our education. Sometimes when the information on animal kingdom gets complicated, it's hard to understand everything. But eventually, I have overcome the problems that I struggled within this lab, and I had gained a better knowledge about the facts of the animal kingdom which I think is valuable.

Calvin Yao - Rewrite

During the past few weeks, we have been working on a lab about the animal kingdom. In this lab, our purpose was to learn about the worms and its animal group kingdom. Also be able to name and identify the major groups in the animal kingdom, and describe the anatomy of these animals. There are six main groups in the animal kingdom, that includes sponges, Cnidarians, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrae. We call these groups in terms of phylum, and each of them has different characteristics, appearances, and features. They are all made up of different structures and that's what makes them unique to look at.

Sponges are the simplest animals. There are about 9,000 species of sponges, and most of them live in the sea, but some species live in fresh water. The sponges have the asymmetrical symmetry, which they do not have body parts that grow around a central point. The sponges have a dead-end digestive system, which their waste products will come out from the same place of where they eat food. Also the sponges are anchored in one spot and they use choanocytes to capture food to eat. Unlike the other phylum, sponge is the only group that does not have tissues nor symmetry, but it does have the same kind of digestive system as Cnidarians though.

The next group is Cnidarians, it has a radial symmetry which body parts grows and arranged around a central point. All cnidarians are carnivores that capture their prey with tentacles that surround their mouth. Their tentacles have stinging cells called nematocysts, so when they strike their prey, the nematocysts within their tentacles will sting the prey and it will not be able to move. Then the Cnidarians will bring the food up to its mouth to eat. One common example of the cnidarians is jellyfish. Out of the six phylum, Cnidarians is the only phylum that has a radial symmetry, and it also has tissues just like the other phylum except for sponges.

The next one is Annelid, which is a general name for the group of worms. It has a bilateral symmetry, which have four different body parts. The top surface is called the dorsal, the bottom surface is called the ventral, the front end is anterior and the back end is posterior. Annelids have a one-way digestive system that they eat food with its mouth and waste product come out from another end. Annelids are segmented and they have eight hearts. Some of the annelids species live on land while some live in the ocean. There are some characteristics that annelids share the same as mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrates, such as they have the same bilateral symmetry, three-part body plan, body cavity, and one-way digestive system. But something unique about annelids is that it's the only phylum that has setae.

Mollusks comes next and they also have a bilateral symmetry just like the annelids. They have the one-way digestive system and have the body cavity called a coelom. Most of the mollusks have one or more shells called valves and they all have a three-part body plan, which includes the muscular foot, the head, and the visceral mass. Some common examples of the mollusks are the clams and the snails. Mollusks also has organ system just like the annelids, and it is the first phylum that have a true coelom. One kind of animal from the mollusk phylum even had advanced eyes that are capable of seeing more different things than simple, or compound eyes.

Arthropods, another group of animals that have a bilateral symmetry and one-way digestive system just like the mollusks and annelids. Arthropods are segmented like the annelids and also have a coelom just like the mollusks. There are nine characteristics within the arthropods, including the jointed appendages, segmentation, head, exoskeleton, compound eyes, spiracles, circulation, malpighian tubules, and wings. Also the arthropods are divided into seven different classes, which are Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Insecta, Malacostraca, Arachinida, Pycnogonida, and Merostomata. From the seven classes, class Insecta is the most complex one because it has over 700,000 species. Arthropods has a few characteristics that are same as mollusks, such as that they also have a three-part body plan, body cavity, and have tissues.

The last one is vertebrae, it also has a bilateral symmetry, one-way digestive system, and coelom similar to the mollusks and arthropods. It is divided into five classes, which are amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and fish. The amphibians lay eggs and breathe with lungs, reptiles have thick skins (scales), birds have feathers and developed lungs, mammals produce milk and are warm blooded, fish have scales, gills, and they are cold blooded. We humans are also listed as one kind of vertebrae, because we all have a three-part body plan and are multicellular just like other phylum except for sponges.

From this lab, I have learnt much more about the groups of animals' features and characteristics. Although it was hard to learn and remember everything about the animal kingdom, but it is actually quite interesting to study about the animals' unique life styles, and I believe that is very important, because by having more knowledge about the animal kingdom, we will be able to get a better understanding about it and I think that is one of the main reasons of the importance of our education. Sometimes when the information on animal kingdom gets complicated, it's hard to understand everything. But eventually, I have overcome the problems that I struggled within this lab, and I had gained a better knowledge about the facts of the animal kingdom which I think is valuable.

Peter Yee

Phylum's is what we have been learning in Biology class lately. A Phylum is a primary group within a kingdom. Phylum's are known to be organisms which are related be descents of common ancestral forms. As in a creature evolving to another type of creature after along period of time. Some groups that belong to the Phylum's are Sponges, Cnidarian, Annelids, Mollusk, Arthropods, and vertebrae's. All these groups of Phylum's make up the animal kingdom. These six groups of Phylum's each have different types of characteristics, meaning each group is different from ore another. Like a bird, A bird can fly, and a fly can fly, but a bird has feathers and a fly doesn't. Thats what separate each group from the other.

The Phylum, Sponge is an animal which lives in water. Sponges are stuck to the sea floor, and can't move. Sponges are A Symmetrical, Meaning they only eat, and let waste out of their system in on opening. Sponges have a dead end digestive system. The dead -end system is the Sponge have no body cavity. Sponges don't have organs, but they only have a valve opening. Cnidarians are Jelly fish. Jelly fish looks like its clear, but its whitish. Jelly fish are Radical Symmetry by their circular body. A Jelly fish has all its main parts of its organs at the center of its body. Jelly fish uses their tentacles to paralyze its prey. After stunning its prey, They start to consume their prey. A Cnidarian also have a dead-end digestive system, but Cnidarians take much longer for them to eat its prey because they are sort of slower than Sponges at consuming things into their digestive system. Sponges eat when minerals hit the side of their openings. Once something passes the Sponge there is no way the Sponge can get it back since they are stuck to the sea floor which they can't live once they are disconnected from the ground.

Annelids are worms. Annelids are Bilateral Symmetry, and has one-way digestive system. Food goes in the same way as its waste comes out the same spot. To think of that, thats pretty nasty. Its like eating your own waste, but not having to digest it, Worms have no legs to walk with. Worms move by slithering very slowly as if they have sensitive skin or they are scared to get burned by the ground. Mollusks have a Bilateral symmetry structure also. They have the same one -way digestive system as the worms. Mollusk: to hide when they feel vibrations. All Mollusk have a head, foot, and visceral mass. Mollusk also carry coelurn which is made out of mesoderm. Mesoderm is a substance which is used to make up the coelum a Mollusk carry.

Here we come to the Arthropods. Arthropods are Bilateral symmetry. Also they got a one-way digestive system. Arthropods bodyplan is segmented. Arthropods have coelum, and jointed appendages. Arthropods have an exoskeleton. Some classes of Arthropods are millipedes, centipedes, insecta, crustaceans, arachnids, horse shoe crab and sea spiders. Vertebrae have a Bilateral symmetry, and has a one was digestive system.

Vertebrae have a spinal cord. Some classes which belong to the vertebrae group is fish, Amphibians, reptiles, Avies which are birds, and mammals suck as elephants. Fish is an animal which lives in water. Fishes swim in water, Fishes don't need air to breathe because they have gills to help them breathe. Places where you can locate Amphibians are most damp places. They most likely are in need of shade, and not in need of much sunlight. Reptiles have a very think skin covering. Reptiles skin is rough, and has grip on it. Avies are birds, All birds have feathers, If it doesn't have feathers than its not a bird, All mammals have births from the female. Mammals don't lay eggs. Mammals give live births.

Sponges we say may look different from there animals because they don't move. They are stuck to the ground unlike animals that can move, and look for food. Jelly fish have a bell shaped body. Sponges also seem like a bell, but in an upside down way. Jelly fish floats around, But worms slither. Worms have a slimy body. Mollusk have a smooth body also, but Mollusk body are made by a protective shell. Unlike worms, Amphibians and insects clams have a hard cover. Clams have what is called a shell. When a clan feels vibrations clams dig farther beneath the ground. Sponges are also creatures without organs. They are hollow on the inside. All vertebraes are warm blooded. Arthropods are cold blooded. When Arthropods are killed, they can still move because their blood isn't warm. Vertebrae also have hair, fur, and a scaly protective layer as their skin coverings. Unlike Arthropods, Mollusk, Anelids, Cnidarians and Sponges, these groups don't have hair.

The difference between each Phylum is their way of reproducing. Some produce by laying eggs. Some produce with organisms collected by other creatures. Mammals produce babies from the females, and not from the male. Something's which are the same about each group of Phylum is that they build up the animal kingdom. Each group has their own way of staying alive, Meaning they have their own way of protecting themselves, and searching for food. Annelids, and Cnidarians probably share the same type of skin, which is slimy skin. All of the animals must have one thing in common. They all need water in order to survive. Also during the day some vertebraes come out in search of food, but by night the Arthropods come out. Its like Arthropods sleep during the day, and come out during the night.

All I think Phylum's do is put each type of animal with their characteristics into certain groups by how they are formed. A Phylum may seem like a hard word to pronounce, and understand. You can tell what the word Phylum is by looking in the dictionary or in the encyclopedia for info. Now since we all know some facts about Phylum's are that there are six major groups of Phylum's which make up the Animal Kingdom. Over the years from the beginning of life till now. Creatures are, and still evolving today. Like us humans were once believed to be descendants of the apes, and evolved to how we are today. I feel that us humans are not apart of the animal kingdom because our knowledge is much stronger, and more better than those who are truly animals.

Danny Yu

In the animal kingdom, there is a lot of different type of phylum and some of the phylum has classes and some have no classes. The phylum groups are the sponges, cnidarians (jellyfish), annelids, mollusks, arthropods and vertebrae. Cnidarian's classes are jellyfish (hydrozoam), and sea anatomies. Annelids consist of earthworms and polychaetes. Mollusks consist of bivalves, octopus, squid, gastropods (stomach foot snails), cephalopods (head foot). Arthropods consist of millipods, centropods, insects, arachnids, crustaceans, horseshoe crab, and sea spiders. Vertebrates consist of amphibians, reptiles, avies (birds), mammals and fishes.

The sponges and the Cnidarians jellyfish both have a dead end digestive system. The differences between the sponges and the jellyfish are that the sponges have a bilateral symmetrical system and they have a choanocylecha. They are also anchored in one spot. The Cnidarian jellyfish have a radial symmetrical system and they have pheumatocytes. They have neurotoxin senses. The sponges and the Annelids both have a bilateral symmetric system. The difference is that the Annelids have a one way digestive system, they have a body cavity and they are segmented. They have eight hearts. The sponges and the mollusks both have a bilateral symmetric system. The difference is that the mollusks have a one way digestive system, they have a coelom, which is made from mesentery. They have a good nervous system, they have a riceral mass is foot and a head. The sponges and the Arthropods both have a bilateral system. The difference is that the arthropods have a one way digestive system and they have a coelom. Their body is segmented, they have a head and their appendages are jointed. They have an exoskeleton body. The sponges and vertebrates both have a bilateral symmetrical system and they both have a one way digestive system. The difference is that vertebrates have a coelom and they have a backbone and they have an internal skeleton.

The Cnidarians jellyfish and the annelids have nothing in common. They are different in all ways. The jellyfish and the mollusks both have a one way digestive system. The differences between the two phyla are that the Cnidarians jellyfish have pheymatocytes and they have neurotoxin senses and the mollusks have a bilateral system and they have a coelom, which is made from mesentery and they also have a good nervous system. The mollusks also have a foot and a head. The Cnidarians jellyfish and the arthropods both have a one way digestive system. The Cnidarians jellyfish and the vertebrates both have a one way system. The difference is that the vertebrates have a bilateral system, they have a coelom, a backbone and an internal skeleton. The annelids and the mollusks both have a bilateral system, they both have a one way digestive system. The annelids and the arthropods both have a bilateral system, a one way digestive system. The difference is that the arthropods have a coelom, a segmented body, they have a head, and exoskeleton and their appendages are jointed. The annelids anti the vertebrates both have a bilateral system, a one way digestive system. The difference is that the vertebrates have a coelom, a backbone and an internal system.

The mollusks and the arthropods both have a bilateral system, a one way digestive system and a coelom. The difference is that the arthropods have a head and jointed appendages. The mollusks and the vertebrates both have a bilateral system, a one way digestive system and a coelom. The difference is that the mollusks have a head and a foot and the vertebrates have a backbone and an internal skeleton. The arthropods and the vertebrates both have a bilateral system, a one way digestive system, and a coelom, The difference is that arthropods have a segmented body, a head and jointed appendages and vertebrates have a backbone and an internal skeleton.

Danny Yu - Rewrite

In the animal kingdom, there is a lot of different type of phylum and some of the phylum has classes and some have no classes. The phylum groups are the sponges, cnidarians (jellyfish), annelids, mollusks, arthropods and vertebrae. Cnidaria's classes are jellyfish (hydrozoan), and sea anatomies. Annelids consist of earthworms and Polychaetes. Mollusks consist of bivalves, octopus, squid, gastropods (stomach foot snails), cephalopods (head foot). Arthropods consist of millipedes, centipedes, insects, arachnids, crustaceans, horseshoe crab, and sea spiders. Vertebrates consist of amphibians, reptiles, Avies (birds), mammals and fishes. This group of animal will he compare and contrast.

All of the animals have symmetry. Sponges are different from other phylum. Sponges are asymmetry while the annelids, mollusks, arthropods, vertebrates have a bilateral symmetry and that make the sponges different form the other animal groups. The sponges and the Cnidarians jellyfish both have a dead end digestive system and that make the sponges have something in common with one of the groups. Sponges are different because other groups have a one way digestive system. Another similarities between sponges and arthropods are that they both filter food particles from water by trapping it in their choanocytes. Then the food is digest inside it cells. The sponges and jellyfish both digest their food in their digestive cavity and they use neumatocytes (stings the prey) to capture the food. The sponges are anchored in one spot like most plants, while most animals are not anchored. are that the sponges have a bilateral symmetrical system and they have a choanocytes. They are also anchored in one spot.

Annelids arc worm, is similar to other groups except the sponges is that they all have bilateral symmetry and a one way digestive system and they have an anterior and a posterior. One group of annelid is the earthworm. Earthworm is detritivores, which means they eat dead leaves, animals, and bacteria. they are different than other animals is that the have eight heart and other groups don't. They and arthropods both are segmented.

Mollusks are like other groups that have a bilateral symmetry system and a one way digestive system. The difference between the sponges is that they have an asymmetry and a dead end digestive system. One group of the mollusk is the bivalves calm. Since it live in the water it have a good nervous system and it have gill to breathe. Bivalve is two layer and one shells. It have three layer in the shell the outer layer (periostracum), a middle layer (prismatic layer), and an inner layer (mother of pearl. Mollusks and arthropods both have a coelom but the coelom from the mollusks is made from mesentery. They have a visceral mass is foot and a head.

Arthropods are bilateral symmetry and have a one way digestive system, which is like all the other animals except the sponges. Like the mollusks they have a coelom. Their body is like annelids which is segmented, they have a head and their appendages are jointed and an exoskeleton. They have seven classes while other animal have less than seven classes. They more complex and diverse than other animals arid that they have eight legs and three body parts. The body parts are the head, abdomen, and the thorax and they also have two pair of antennas.

Vertebrate is different than other animal. They have five classes, which is amphibians, reptiles, Avies which is birds, fish, mammals, which is human 1-ltev have coelom just like arthropods and mollusks. They also have an internal skeleton and backbones. 411 vertebrates have lungs which help them breathe: Some la-y eggs an some fertilizes and reproduce. Mammals develop milk. which other don't have. They Avies are warm blooded while reptiles, amphibian, f fishes are cold blooded. Some of the warm and cold blood are similar to other animals groups.

Pei Xian Yu

In this time we have a lab is about animal kingdom. Animal kingdom has a lots animals there. There has six big groups in the animal kingdom. They are Sponges, Cnidarians, Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, and Chordates (vertebrates). They are the different groups, so they has different data to about them. In this lab we talk a lots about the animals.

Just like the Sponges. It is a feeble animal, sponges has the same basic structure as a bag- a large internal cavity with an opening at the top. The nutrients are picked up by other specialized cells, called amoebocytes. Inside of a sponges is lined by cells called choanocytes, center, which trap tiny organisms in the water. Then they can grown healthy.

This one is Cnidarians. The body plan of a Cnidarians is more complex than that of a sponge. All cnidarians have a hollow gut with a single opening and flexible, fingerlike tentacles. The most primitive cnidarians are of their lives as medusa and part as polyps. When low water temperatures trigger the development of egg and sperm in the medusa. Like sponges, some species if hydra are hermaphrodites.

Here is Annelids, like clam. Annelids that are familiar to everyone are the earthworms, earthworms come to the surface only at night or during the heavy rains. During dry they burrow deep into the soil and become inactive. Annelids are coleomate worms that have segmented bodies. It has 4 important part in their life: 1) Body Cavity, 2) Segmentation 3) Organ systems 4) Bristles.

Next one is Mollusks. Mollusks are one of the most successful of all animal phyla. They are widespread and often abundant in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. Mollusks and annelids were probably the first major groups of organisms to develop a true coelom. Also the fertilized eggs of both groups develop into a distinct larval from called a trochophore. Most mollusks breathe with gills and have open circulatory system and nephridia.

This one is Arthropods. Arthropods have a coelom and a segmented body. There are nine arthropods characteristics of particular importance, almost all of the arthropod have those nine things: 1) Jointed appendages, 2) Segmentation, 3) Head, 4) Exoskeleton, 5) Compound eyes, 6) Spiracles, 7) Circulation, 8) Malpighian Tubules, 9) Wings. Just like: scorpions, spiders, mites ............

This is Chordates (Vertebrates). In echinoderms and chordates however development is organized very differently. Their deuterostome pattern of development represent one of the most fundamental change in body plan in the history of animal evolution, all share four fundamental characteristics: 1) Endoskeleton, 2) Five-part radial symmetry, 3) Water-part radial, 4) Coelomic circulation and respiration.

In this al I learn a lot of thing from the animals. I know where are they live, what they eat, what they looks like. just some thing like that. The very different in those six groups is the Sponges and Chordates. Cause sponges is like very feeble, but chordate is ridge.