Plant Kingdom Essays:

Wardah Asaba
David Bituin
Johnson Chen
Jeffrey Cheng
Lori Cheng
Joseph Chiang
Joseph Chiang Revision 1
Kura L. Cohen
Kura L. Cohen Revision 1
Jeremy Hui
Jeff Huang
Jeff Huang Revision
Keithrie Jennings
Christina Khalil
May Dan Kuang
May Dan Kuang, Revision 1
Rowena Kumar
Rowena Kumar Revision 1
Jenny Lam
Joseph Laurente
Johnny Li
Dennis Lim
David Liang
Jing Liang
Yan Jun Lu
Cherry Ann Mendoza
Ashley Mooring
Sweetie Mortensen
David Nguyen
Nancy Nguyen
Jessica Ramos
David Ross
Sam Tang
Lanishia Thomas
Helen Tran
Helen Tran Revision 1
Diana Uriarte
Michael Vo
Brandon Williams
Kenny Wong
Peter Wong
Bich Ha Tran
Angel Xie
Calvin Yao
Peter Yee
Peter Yee Revision 1
Danny Yu
Danny Yu Revision 1
Pei Xian Yu

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Similarities & Differences of Plant Divisions

November 19, 2001

Wardah Asaba

There are another kind of kingdom that I learned about, which is the plant kingdom. It includes Liverworts, Horsetails, conifer, and angiosperm. Those are some of the different types of plant in the plant kingdom. Some of the plants might leaves, some might have flowers growing around them, one might have fruits and vegetables growing on it etc. Also I find out that whether they are sporophyte or gametophyte. Like to see if the plant is leafless or not .

Liverworts is the type of plant that is a gametophyte some of them have leaves their outline is shaped almost like a liver. Horsetails have segmented stems and have a needle-like leaves. The Conifers are mostly evergreen trees and have shrubs with leaves like needles. And last but not least the Angiosperms the plant that has seeds and has produce fruits. This is just some description about the types of plants.

The differences between Liverworts and Horsetails are that Liverworts have a leafy body, dominant gametophyte, vascular tissue, stems anti leaves that are flat Horsetails don't have any of these characteristics. The similar things between the both of them are that they both have roots and stems. The next comparison is between Conifers and. angiosperm, the different things I see between then are that Conifers have cones and the leaves are needle-like or looked like scale. The similarity that I see between the both of them has seeds or fruit.

Between all of there some of the plants has leaves or fruits. I think almost all of them has the same characteristics except for Liverworts its probably the only one without a dominant sporophyte. One of the interesting thing that I found out was that the Horsetails plant can survive and even flourish in soils severely contaminated by chemical pollutants. This was new information that I found from an enclopedia. And the plants that are vascular is the hogi and Conifers. And the Liverworts are nonvascular.

David Bituin

During the past couple of weeks we have been studying the different plant forms. We have been studying the different parts of the plant and how it works. We have been studying flowers and looking at them all under microscopes. We have learned many new things about plants and we have learned that they all have differences and similarities. The Plant Kingdom turns out to be made up of many different plants. Each plant has different qualities while each has many of the same ones as obvious as them all being plants. There are four different plants that have things in common as well as things uncommon.

Liverworts are simple plants that are small and have a dominant gametophyte with a leafy body similar to some of the other three plants. It has around 6000 different species. It is a nonvascular plant, lacks vascular tissue, meaning that it doesn't have the tissue that transports water. It is one of the three that is a nonvascular plant. It lacks stems and roots unlike the other vascular plants which have stems and roots.

The Horsetails is a seedless small plant like the Liverworts. It has a dominant sporophyte unlike the Liverwort. There are around 15 different species of the Horsetails. It has roots and ribbed stems with soft needle leaves at joints. It has a dominant sporophyte like the Conifer and the Angiosperms. The sporophyte means the diploid plant from with each cell having two complete sets of chromosomes. The Horsetails and the Liverworts both are seedless plants.

The Conifers or Coniferophyta are Gymnosperms which is seed plants that have a large sporophyte and have ovules that are not closed by an ovary. The conifer has around 550 different species. The conifer has an advanced way of protecting its seed which could also be known as the pine cone. It is mostly evergreen trees and shrubs with leaves that are formed like needles. It also is a seed plant like the Angiosperms.

The Angiosperms or the Anthophyta are seed plants that have a dominant sporophyte like the Horsetails and the Conifers. There are around 250,000 different species making it the plant phylum which has the most amount of species. It has ovules that are closed by an ovary. It is the only plant between the other three that has an ovule that is closed by an ovary which makes it the only plant out of all that produces flowers and fruits. It is a very different group of plants that has trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs. It shares common things with the conifer like them both being a seed plant and both having dominant sporophytes.

Throughout the plant kingdom the different plants have different things in common and they all have their fair share of differences between them as well. This makes them all unique in their own special way. The Angiosperms is the only plant that can produce flowers and fruit making it very advanced compared to the rest of the different plants. The plants all share at least one common similarity between each other. This shows that they are all part of the plant kingdom and that the different phylum is similar in one way or another.

Johnson Chen

In the last few we had learn about the different types of plants and it is so fun, during that time, also we did some lab about the different types of plants. I feel that could be the new until for me. Because in those week, I learn a lot new knowledge and those knowledge makes me remind something, when I was in China I had learn the same types of things too. In those weeks we learn about new groups of plants, like Horsetails, Liverworts, Conifers and Angiosperms.

The Horsetails looks like a whip, and all the leaf are green. The leaves grow at the two side of the trunk, and it had roots, stems, and leaves three main parts in it. And the Horsetails is a dominant saprophyte types plants, the leaves are modified as needles or scales. Horsetails are not only types of plants, it is a kind of plant also.

The Liverworts of this group bear leaf-like structures, on a branched or entrenched stem, which most often lies horizontally with respect to the surface upon which the plant is growing. The leaves are generally only a single cell thick, and have no vascular system and no protective surface layer as is the case with higher plants. Often the leaves are divided into two or more lobes, and sometimes the lobes are folded to form various shapes. The leaves are most often arranged in two rows, but in many species there is a third row of very much smaller leaves, which are often only visible with a hand-lens or microscope. The arrangement of the two main rows of leaf is often a clue to identification.

The Conifers have 500 or more species. There is also other plant like the pines, cypress and redwoods. The Conifers have a dominant gametophyte stage, it have leaves, seeds or fruit. The leaves are modified as needles or scales and the ovule includes by an ovary.

The Angiosperms, are the dominant group of plants on land, with around 230,000 described species. It is the dominant gametophytes, and it have flowers and seeds or fruit, also the ovules in closed by an ovary too. In a year we had seen a lot of tree or flower, and half of them are the Angiosperms. So the Angiosperms are around of us, you can see it anywhere that has flower. The flower in the plant is the reproductive. Because the flower's aspect are colorful and it charm the bee or insect to bring the pollen from one flower to another flower.

At the end I learn the Conifers and the Angiosperms are different kind of Gymnosperms. They grow by flower and fruits or seeds. And the Liverworts are dominant gametophytes. The Horsetails are the dominant sporophyte.

Jeffrey Cheng

We have studied about plants, this essay will compare and contrast the differences between each plant. First we are going to compare the Carnation and the Astromera, these two plants may look very different from each other, but there actually they are the same type which is the Hypogynous. The difference between the Carnation and the Astromera is their ovary structure and the length of it's pistils. The next thing this essay will cover is the Gymnosperm. which was cover weeks ago in our lab, we observed Plants like the Cypress which is in the Gymnosperm division. Another plant that is in the Gymnosperm division is the pine it's an all wood structure from a pine tree. Another different division would be the Angiosperms which is a totally different division it's different because unlike the Pine and Cypress the Angiosperms has petals, and grows like a regular plant. So what does Angiosperms feature? Well the Angiosperms features Flowers, Fruit. The difference between the Gymnosperm is that this division contains: Cone, Stronger wood Structure. which means the Angiosperms is not as tough as the Gymnosperm because it's Stronger wood structure.

Liverworts is the simplest roots and stems, the Liverworts is in most plants, because not plant can grow and survive without roots. Mosses is a little more complex and small leaf. which is a plant with little leaves, Horsetails is just stems, trunks, roots. which is most common to be seen, because it's in trees, a tree contains a trunk, roots, and many stems, so the similarities between the Mosses and the Horsetails is that both the Mosses and Horsetails has roots and stems, but in two different sizes. The Mosses which is found in small plants, and The Horsetails which is found in trees.

Another comparison would be with the Vascular / Non Vascular plants. A Vascular plant is where it has many stems and also like the (Non Vascular) has (xylem + Phloem) So that was the Similarities and Differences. Sporophyte is when Chloroplasts turns into photosynthesis, gametophyte does the same thing except the gametophyte goes in a cycle from a 2n to a 1n, so the differences between the two is that the Sporophyte turns from one thing to another and does not return to Chloroplast, and the gametophyte is a cycle which goes over and over.

Lori Cheng

The plant kingdom, like the animal kingdom, consists of many different groups. There are twice as many phyla than what the animal kingdom has, which comes to a total of 12 different phyla within the plant kingdom. I will only be talking about four of these phyla, though. They are Hepatophyta (Liverworts), Sphenophyta (Horsetails), Coniferophyta (Conifers), and last Anthophyta (flowering plants). As you read along, you will learn more about these four groups, their similarities and differences.

Basically, the plant kingdom is divided into two groups: the nonvascular plants and the vascular plants. Within these two groups are the different phyla. Vascular plants, like the Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms have cells that run from the tips of the roots all the way to the tips of the stems and into the leaves. Nonvascular plants may have no vascular system or very simple vascular tissue. That's how plants are classified.

The Liverworts are the simplest plants out of the whole kingdom. They have a dominant gametophyte with a leafy body. They lack vascular tissue, a cuticle, stomata, roots, stems, and leaves. The leaves that they do have are flat. This plant is the only nonvascular plant in these four groups but this is also one of three plants in the kingdom that is nonvascular.

The second phyla are the Horsetails. Horsetails are vascular plants, which I mentioned before. They are seedless with a dominant sporophyte. Their leaves aren't the ordinary leaves you see or imagine. They are prickly and needlelike, yet soft. The leaves are jointed at the stems, and they also have roots.

The third plant is the Conifers. They are Gymnosperms, which are seed plants with tiny gametophytes and a large sporophyte, just like the Horsetails. They also have ovules, which are not enclosed by an ovary. Conifers produce cones and their leaves are like the Horsetails's leaves, which are prickly and needlelike. Their bodies are leafy like, which are similar to the Liverworts. Most Conifers are evergreen trees or shrubs.

The last group of plants are the flowering plants. By their name, you can tell they produce flowers. They are also called Angiosperms. This group is very much similar to the Conifers. They both are seed plants with tiny gametophytes and have a large sporophyte. There are differences though. I mentioned that Conifers have ovules, which are not enclosed by an ovary, but Angiosperms do, an ovary encloses them. The leaves are flat, just like the Liverworts. Also Angiosperms consist of a diverse group of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs that produce flowers and fruits. One last thing is that Conifers, Angiosperms and Horsetails all have roots, stems, and leaves.

As you can see, these four plants do share the same characteristics but also, they have things that make them stand out from others. Each plant is so different looking from one another but their appearance can be deceiving. When you learn more about their structure, you will see the similarities that you won't see on the outside. No wonder there are so many groups. I didn't even know there were a total of 12 different groups of plants. That's one thing I learned about the plant kingdom. It's made up of a diverse community.

Joseph Chiang

In the plant kingdom, there are numerous variations of plants. Unlike the animal kingdom, there are many more differences in the plant structures which can determine each plant type. Some distinctions include changes in leaf size, shape, color, or even number. Others can be stem size, width, structure, or even if the plant has a stem at all. Another is the existence of seeds, size, shape, color, structure, and flowers.

All plant leaves have one of several different leaf arrangements; alternate, opposite and whorled. Alternate leaves can be seen when a plant has two rows of leaves, one row on two opposite sides. Opposite leaves are when there are leaves on four different sides. The last type of leaf arrangement is whorled leaves, which are several rings of leaves around the stem.

The leaves of trees can also vary from one another. This type of variation is called compound leaves. One type of compound leaf is the odd-pinnate. These leaves are attached to a branch, with the number of leaves on each branch ending in an odd number. Another is called the even-pinnate. These are the same as the odd ones, except the number of leaves is even. The third is called the palmate. This leaf pattern is in the shape of a five-point star. The next one is the bipinnate. This one has the branch breaking off into separate branches, each resulting in a pinnate shape. Lastly, there is the ternate. This leaf is shaped like a peace sign by using three petals.

Each leaf on a plant can also be different. One type of leaf structure is shaped like the spade from a deck of cards. These are called petiolate. Another one is called the sessile. This looks similar, but doesn't have a little stem coming out of the bottom. Some leaves have a thick, noticeable vein in the middle. These are called venation. The last group of leaves is called the margins. Like the name, each leaf in this group has a margin formed around the edges.

There are four major plant groups that are different from each other in several ways, and at the same time, are somewhat different. The first group is Liverworts, the only non-vascular plant we have studied and discussed. By the term non-vascular, we mean that a plant does not have the ability to transport water through its structure; they are usually small and must live near water to be able to survive. Liverwort plants are a type of moss, with a leafy body, flat leaves, no roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds, or fruit. This plant has a dominant gametophyte, which means that during this plant's life cycle, gametes are produced during its haploid phase. These next groups of plants are vascular, having evolved into plants with the ability to transport water throughout its structure. These plants can survive further away from water, but also at the same time grow much larger than the non-vascular plants. The second plant is called Horsetails. These plants have, unlike the Liverworts, roots, stems and leaves but also don't have flowers, seeds or fruit. Horsetails do not have flat leaves or a leafy body, but have a dominant sporophyte. The sporophyte is the diploid phase of the Horsetails's life cycle which produce spores. The third plant is Conifers. Conifers also have dominant sporophyte, but don't have any roots, stems or leaves. They grow cones as a way of reproducing and the leaves are modified as needles or scales. The last major member of the plant kingdom is the angiosperm. These have a dominant sporophyte are the only plants that have flowers, seeds or fruits. These are also the only plants that have ovules that are enclosed in the ovaries.

Most of these plants are vascular, but even with their different groups, they still have several similarities. As to be expected from plants that are in different groups, they also have many other differences, some almost unnoticeable to normal person. The plant kingdom is varied in its life forms, just like the animal kingdom is.

Joseph Chiang Revision 1

In the plant kingdom, there are numerous variations of plants. Unlike the animal kingdom, there are many more differences in the plant structures which can determine each plant type. Some distinctions include changes in leaf size, shape, color, or even number. Others can be stem size, width, structure, or even if the plant has a stem at all. Another is the existence of seeds, size, shape, color, structure, and flowers.

All plant leaves have one of several different leaf arrangements; alternate, opposite and whorled. Alternate leaves can be seen when a plant has two rows of leaves, one row on two opposite sides. Opposite leaves are when there are leaves on four different sides. The last type of leaf arrangement is whorled leaves, which are several rings of leaves around the stem.
The leaves of trees can also vary from one another. This type of variation is called compound leaves. One type of compound leaf is the odd-pinnate. These leaves are attached to a branch, with the number of leaves on each branch ending in an odd number. Another is called the even-pinnate. These are the same as the odd ones, except the number of leaves is even. The third is called the palmate. This leaf pattern is in the shape of a five-point star. The next one is the bipinnate. This one has the branch breaking off into separate branches, each resulting in a pinnate shape. Lastly, there is the ternate. This leaf is shaped like a peace sign by using three petals.

Each leaf on a plant can also be different. One type of leaf structure is shaped like the spade from a deck of cards. These are called petiolate. Another one is called the sessile. This looks similar, but doesn't have a little stem coming out of the bottom. Some leaves have a thick, noticeable vein in the middle. These are called venations. The last group of leaves is called the margins. Like the name, each leaf in this group has a margin formed around the edges.

There are four major plant groups that are different from each other in several ways, and at the same time, are somewhat different. The first group is liverworts, which are a type of moss with a leafy body, flat leaves, no roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds, or fruit. They are the only non-vascular plants we have studied and discussed. By the term non-vascular, I mean that a plant does not have the ability to transport water through its structure; they are usually small and must live near water to be able to survive. This plant has a dominant gametophyte, which means that this type of plant usually has a pair of genes. They occasionally live with a single gene, as a sporophyte, but adapted mainly to this one, making this plant live longer in the gametophyte stage, making it dominant.

These next groups of plants are vascular, having evolved into plants with the ability to transport water throughout its structure. These plants can survive further away from water, but also at the same time grow much larger than the non-vascular plants. The second plant is called horsetails. These plants have, unlike the liverworts, roots, stems and leaves but also don't have flowers, seeds or fruit. Horsetails do not have flat leaves or a leafy body, but have a dominant sporophyte. The sporopyhte is when a plant survives with only one gene. The third plant is conifers. Conifers also have dominant sporophyte. They are also the only plants we have studied that grow cones. Cones are used as a way of reproducing and the leaves are modified as needles or scales. The last major member of the plant kingdom is the angiosperm. These have a dominant sporophyte and are the only plants that we have studied that have flowers, seeds or fruits. These are also the only plants that have ovules that are enclosed in the ovaries.

Most of these plants are vascular, but even with their different groups, they still have several similarities. As to be expected from plants that are in different groups, they also have many other differences, some almost unnoticeable to normal person. The plant kingdom is varied in its life forms, just like the animal kingdom is.

Kura L. Cohen

In the Plant Kingdom there are very diverse plants. There are various plants with many different versions of the plant. The plant colors change by the plant reproducing with another plant and different shapes or forms because the plant adapts to its environment. In my essay, I will be talking about four different plant types. The four different types of Hepatophyta (Liverworts), Sphenophyta (Horsetails), Coniferophyta (Conifers), and Gymnosperms (Angiosperms).

Hepatophyta or Liverworts are very simple. Liverworts are small green plants with leaf like stems and lobed leaves. Liverworts are lacking true roots and reproduce with spores. Liverworts are non vascular plants. Nonvascular means that the there is no system of vessels and veins that carry sap, water, and nutrients all through the plant. Usually plants that are non vascular are not very large because they have to be close to the ground to get there nutrients. Liverworts are dominant gametophyte. Dominant gametophyte is a plant life cycle where gametes are used. Gametes are both sex parts, the egg and the sperm. Gametophytes reproduce asexually (with themselves) so they only have there normal amount of chromosomes. Gametophytes are not very good because if there is a change in the environment than the plant cannot adapt to change because it only has characteristics from one plant. Liverworts has a cuticle, stomata (allows movement of gasses in and out), roots, stems, and leaves. Liverworts have flat leaves.

Sphenophyta or Horsetails are also small plants. Horsetails are little seedless non vascular plants. Horsetails have vascular tissue which is a system that conducts water, mineral nutrients, and organic molecules made by photosynthesis. Horsetails have independent gametophyte and dominant sporophyte. Dominant sporophyte is plant cycle that reproduces sexually. Two different plants combine chromosomes and makes two pairs. Dominant sporophyte is very good because two genes from different individuals (plants) are combined so you have better chance to adapt to a change in the environment because the chromosomes are shuffled and you probably have a chromosome to fit the adaptation. Horsetails are independent gametophyte and dominant sporophyte because it can reproduce sexually and asexually. This is good because if the Horsetails cannot find a mate, then it can mate with itself. Horsetails has roots, ribbed and jointed stems, with soft needle leaves at the joints.

Coniferophyta or Conifers are large seed plants. Conifers are vascular plants with vascular tissue. Conifers are Gymnosperms. Gymnosperms are seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules not enclosed by any ovary. This is good because like I said above, the Conifers can reproduce sexually or asexually. Conifers are mostly evergreen trees and shrubs. Conifers have roots, stems, and needle or scale leaves. Conifers also produce cones.

Gymnosperm or Angiosperms are large plants. Angiosperms evolved from Gymnosperm. Angiosperms are seed plants that reproduce flowers which make seeds within an ovary. Angiosperms are vascular plants and have vascular tissue. Angiosperms have roots, stems, and flat leaves. Angiosperms reproduce cones and seeds. Angiosperms have made of herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees.

Kura L. Cohen Revision 1

In the Plant Kingdom there are very diverse plants. There are various plants with many different versions of the plant. The plant colors change by the plant reproducing with another plant and different shapes or forms because the plant adapts to its environment. In my essay, I will be talking about four different plant types. The four different types of Hepatophyta (Liverworts), Sphenophyta (Horsetails), Coniferophyta (Conifers), and Gymnosperms (Angiosperms).

Hepatophyta or Liverworts are very simple. Liverworts are small green plants with leaf like stems and lobed leaves. Liverworts are lacking true roots and reproduce with spores. Liverworts are nonvascular plants. Nonvascular means that the there is no system of vessels and veins that carry sap, water, and nutrients all through the plant. Usually plants that are nonvascular are not very large because they have to be close to the ground to get there nutrients. Liverworts are dominant gametophyte. Dominant gametophyte is a the reproductive system of a plant. Gametes are both sex parts, the egg and the sperm. Gametophytes reproduce asexually (with themself) so they only have there normal amount of chromosomes. Gametophytes are not very good because if there is a change in the environment than the plant cannot adapt to change because it only has characteristics from one plant. Liverworts has a cuticle, stomata (allows movement of gasses in and out), roots, stems, and leaves. Liverworts have flat leaves.

Sphenophyta or Horsetails are also small plants. Horsetails are little seedless non vascular plants. Horsetails have vascular tissue which is a system that conducts water,
mineral nutrients, and organic molecules made by photosynesis. Horsetails have independent gametophyte and dominant sporophyte. Dominant sporophyte is plant cycle that reproduces sexually. Two different plants combine chromosomes and makes two pairs. Dominant sporophyte is very good because two genes from different individuals (plants) are combined so you have better chance to adapt to a change in the environment because the chromosomes are shuffled and you probably have a chromosome to fit the adaption. Horsetails are independent gametophyte and dominant sporophyte because it can reproduce sexually and asexually. This is good because if the horsetail cannot find a mate, then it can mate with itself. Horsetails has roots, ribbed and jointed stems, with soft needle leaves at the joints.

Coniferophyta or Conifers are large seed plants. Conifers are vascular plants with vascular tissue. Conifers are Gymnosperms. Gymnosperms are seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules not enclosed by any ovary. This is good because like I said above, the conifers can reproduce sexually or asexually. Conifers are mostly evergreen trees and shrubs. Conifers have roots, stems, and needle or scale leaves. Conifers also produce cones.

Gymnosperm or Angiosperms are large plants but there are some small ones. Angiosperms evolved from Gymnosperm. Angiosperms are seed plants that reproduce flowers which make seeds within an ovary. Angiosperms are vascular plants and have vascular tissue. Angiosperms have roots, stems, and flat leaves. Angiosperms reproduce cones and seeds. Angiosperms have made of herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees.

Angiosperms, Horsetails, and Conifers are vascular plants. Unlike them, Liverworts are nonvascular plants. Liverworts are dominant gametophyte. Horsetails and Conifers are dominant sporophyte. Horsetails are also independent gametophyte. Conifers also have tiny gametophyte. All four of the plants have roots and stems. Liverworts and Angiosperms have flowers. Conifers and Angiosperms have seeds or fruit. Conifers also have cones. Horsetails and Conifers have needles or scales as leaves. All four types of plants have ovules inclosed by an ovary

Jeremy Hui

In the plant kingdom we explored many different types of plants. But the main plants we looked at are liverwort, Conifers, angiosperm, and Horsetails. All of these types of plants are nonvascular.

Liverworts are also called Hepatophyta which are simple plants. These plants are small and having a dominant gametophyte. Its body lacks vascular tissue, cuticle, stomata, roots, stems, and leaves. There are 6,000 species of these.

The Conifers are known as Coniferophyta. The Gymnosperms which are seed plants with tiny gametophytes that produce cones, evergreen trees, and shrubs with leave needles or scales. When I saw this type of plant I saw that there are pines. I notice that the tip of the needle there is a yellow spot, the yellow spot is called the male part of the plant. The brown parts of the plant represents the female part. T saw another conifer which is called the cypress. I notice that both the pine plant and the cypress has brown branches in common. What they don't have in common is their leaf structure. The pine has green needles and the cypress has green scale leaves. There are 550 species of Conifers.

The next plant we looked into is the Horsetails. The Horsetails is in the Sphenophyta division. They call it a Horsetails because the structure of it looks like a real Horsetails. The Horsetails has a green and black stem and needles. It has a dominant sporophyte that is highly branched and has tiny leaves. It is seedless with a small independent gametophyte.

The last plant division which I looked at is called the Angiosperms, The plant I looked at is called the Anise. The Anise is like the cypress they both have green needles except the anise is hard to tell if it is female or male.

So after looking at all these plants I notice that the Liverworts have the most living species out there. I also notice that all these plants are all nonvascular plants.

Jeff Huang

In this unit, the Plant Kingdom, we studied about the structure, characteristic and feature of plants. Each plant has their own structure, characteristic and feature differ than others. We also have dissected plants in having closer look at their cells of each section. We talked about the different between vascular plants and nonvascular plants. A vascular plant's body is composed of tissues that form its organs- roots, stems and leaves, and a nonvascular plant's body is mostly lack vascular tissues, and do not have veins, stems, roots and leaves. We also talked about their life cycle, sporophyte (2n) and Gametophyte (n).

There are three phyla of vascular plants we have learned, seedless, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Horsetails and fern are seedless. Horsetails has a small independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte consisting of roots and ribbed and jointed stems with soft needlelike leaves at the joints. Fern is almost same as Horsetails, but it have a horizontal stems. In fern and other seedless vascular plants, the sporophyte is dominant, and the gametophyte is smaller, independent, and self- sufficient.

Conifers are Gymnosperms, which is seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules not enclosed by an ovary that produce cones. Conifer produce massive amounts of pollen grains, which is carried to seed cones by wind. The differences between Horsetails and Conifers are the former can't produce seed but Conifers can.

Angiosperms are flowering plants, seed plants with tiny gametophytes a large sporophyte, and ovules enclosed by an ovary. We can see the different between confers and Angiosperms are the former having no ovules enclosed by an ovary and not flowering plants. Also, vascular plants mostly have a dominant sporophyte.

Liverwort is usually inconspicuous and found growing in moist and shady place. It is the simplest plants from the group of nonvascular plants. There are about 6,000 species in the world. They are small plant and have a dominant gametophyte with a flattened or leafy body. Liverwort doesn't have vascular tissue, stomata, cuticle, roots, stems, and leaves, but vascular plants do. Actually, not all the nonvascular don't have vascular tissue. Mosses mostly have simple vascular tissue.

The life cycles of all plants exhibit sporic meiosis and alternation of generations. The life cycles of nonvascular plant is characterized by a gametophyte that is larger than the sporophyte, and the vascular plant is characterized by a sporophyte that is larger than the gametophyte.

After having this unit, I realized that plant kingdom is harder than the animal kingdom, and I still confused on the 2n and n. From the lesson and lab of this unit we did, I learned more knowledge about the plants than what I know before. I probably could define some plants' phylum by looking at their feature. I also recognized their differences and similarities. I also learned plants are divided by two main groups, vascular plants and nonvascular plants.

Jeff Huang Revision

In this unit, the Plant Kingdom, we studied about the structure, characteristic and feature of plant. Each plant has their own structure, characteristic and feature differ than others. We also have dissected plant in having closer look at their cells of each section. We talked about the different between vascular plants and nonvascular plants. A vascular plant's body is mostly lack vascular tissues, and do not have veins, stems roots and leaves. We also talked about their life cycle, Sporophyte(2n) and Gametophyte(n).

Liverworts are from group of nonvascular plants, usually inconspicuous and found growing in moist and shady place, the simplest plants. There are about 6,000 species in the world. They are small plant and have a dominant gametophyte with a flattened or leafy body. Unlike the vascular plants, Liverworts do not have vascular tissue, stomata, cuticle, roots, stems and leaves. Actually, not all the nonvascular do not have vascular tissue. Mosses mostly have simple vascular tissue.

Horsetails are from group of vascular plants. They have a small independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte consisting of roots and ribbed and jointed stems with soft needlelike leaves at the joints. Horsetails do not produce seeds. There are about 15 species, which is considered much less comparing to other plants. Unlike the liverworts, Horsetails have steams, roots, and roots, but horsetails cannot product seed, just like conifers.

Conifers are gymnosperms, which are seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules not enclosed by an ovary that produce cone. They also have leaves that looked like needles or scales. Conifers produce massive amounts of pollen grains, which are carried to seed cones by wind. Their leaves are similar to the leaves of the horsetails, but different from other plants, which leaves are not needle and scale, like liverworts and angiosperms. The difference between Horsetails and conifers are the former cannot produce seed but conifers can. And conifers have leaves, stem, and tissues but liverworts do not have.

Angiosperms are flowering plants, seed plants with gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules enclosed by an ovary. We can see the different between confers and angiosperms are the former having no ovules enclosed by and not flowering plants. The nonvascular plants also cannot product flower too. Angiosperms are divided into 250,000 species, which is a very diverse and complex group.

The life cycles of plants exhibit sporic meiosis and alternation of generations. The zygote is often the only diploid(2n) cell, and it undergoes meiosis immediately after fertilization to form haploid(n) cells. The life cycles of nonvascular plant is characterized by a gametophyte that is larger than the sporophyte, and the vascular plant is characterized by a sporophyte that is larger than the gametophyte.

After having this unit, I realized that Plant Kingdom harder than the Animal Kingdom. From the
lesson and lab of this unit we did, I learned more knowledge about the plants than what I used to know. I probably could define some plants' phylum by looking at their feature. I also recognized their differences and similarities. I also learned plants are divided by two main groups, vascular plants and nonvascular plants, and these lesson will be valuable and important for my future.

Keithrie Jennings

Liverwarts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperm are three out of all the many different kinds of plant phylums. Like the animal phylums, as time passes by these plants get more better and complex. It's not all about pretty flowers and greeny stuff like a plant model fashion show. These guys have hardcore insides too. There outside is as beautiful as their insides. And every time a new generation comes by, there's always some kind of different feature comes up. But these new features aren't there just to make these guys look pretty. It's like super human powers they gain that makes them different from the other plant phylums. These features help them live better like loyalty in this cruel world. But remember, like the animal phylums the environment and phylums work together like pals so each one gets what they want.

The first plant phylum are the Liverworts. These guys are the simplest plants out there. They're so simple that they don't even have roots, stems, or even leaves. But they are really flat and have "leafy" bodies. Back then they were like the school freaks when they first came. They were like the only plant creature that lived. And they really stood out and were so weird looking that probably back then they were pushed and stepped around on by those stinking bully animal phylums. They probably ate them too just for fun. But soon these plants were going to get even and get more hardcore. These guys come from this crew called the non vascular plants. Non vascular plants are like the first guys to ever step into this world. These kinds of plants are really simple if you put it insides terms. They get water for energy using the ground and dirt. These guys are always close to the stream because they need to be as close to the water as possible unless they want to dehydrate their butts off. The dirt aren't their slave. They aren't special. "This is not the freaking five star hotel," the dirt would probably say. They need to get their food like everybody else. But the only problem with this is that if they do go near the stream all the animal homies will try to eat them up and they'll become the food. Another characteristic of this plant is that they have a dominant gametophype. Each plant and even animals have chromosomes which are like genes we have that make us who we are. Well in gametophytes, there is only one set of chromosomes. This is called the haploids. These haploides make a lot of kissy kissy and fusionation actively interacting with each other for fertilization. These guys are called gametes.

After the liverworts step foot onto these lands, horse tails comes by with their weavy leaves and thin butt stems. Unlike those boring sissys liverworts, these guys have contain roots and jointed stems with needlelike leaves at the joints. As times go, generations passes by and people get old, these guys gets more complex and hardcore. Unlike the liverworts and other non vascular plants, these guys also have a dominant sporophyte. This time there are two sets of chromosomes that produce pores. Unlike the gametophyte that only has one set. This is called diploids. Soon these smart butts plants made like their own life plan where the gametophytes of a plant joins putting their differences aside making kissy kissy with the sporophyte of a plant to make a better life plan.

Like the horsetails, the other crew vascular plants brings out the conifers. Conifers are the first plants to have seeds. Ovules which makes the seeds are not enclosed by an ovary. Because of this, these guys can actually and are smart enough to grow cones. And no, I'm not talking about ice cream cones, even though it kind of do look similar and have the same purpose. Like ice cream cones, these hard and scaley walls protect these plants from vegetarian animal's butt just like how ice cream cones protect the ice cream inside it. Like horsetails, vascular plants, have veins. These guys are growing up so fast and getting to be complex plants adults that it makes me want to cry. Next year they'll be allowed to watch rated R films. I can't believe their butts already have veins. These cool veins allows them to move water and nutrients throughout their body. These guys makes the liverworts and those other puny non vascular plants really bad. Unlike the non vascular plants these guys can grow faster and buffer. The water and nutrients moves past their body like lightning. Another thing cool is that their names and picture would be on the menu less and they won't have the word "lunch" all over them.

Once again the crew vascular plants bring the new member, angiosperm. Like the conifers these guys also have seeds. But their ovules are enclosed by an ovary. And when you hear ovary, say flowers. Ovary, flowers, ovary, flowers and so on. That's right these guys are the first plant to ever have pretty rainbow colorful flowers. Another thing, would you like some angiosperm with that? That's right these guys also have fruits.

See how fast they grow up. As time pass by, these plants get more complex and complex. Generations pass by and new features form all to fit the balance of nature making a partnership and chain.

Christina Khalil

For the last couple of weeks our Biology class has been studying, and observing plants. We noticed many things about them such as their colors, steams, leaves, etc. In this essay I will talk about four different types of plants I observed in class which are Hepatophyta (Liverworts), Sphenophtyta (Horsetails), Coniferophyta (Conifers), and Gynmosperms (Angiosperms).

Hepatophyta (liverworts) are the simplest plants. Liverworts are small green plants, with leaves like steams and it has lobed leaves. Liverworts have flat leaves. Liverworts are nonvascular. That means that there is no system of vessels, and veins that carry sap, water, or nutrients through the plant. Liverworts are reproduced with spores. Liverworts are dominant gametophytes. A dominant gametophytes is a plant with a reproductive system. Gametes are made up from gametophytes. Gametes are sex parts, the egg and the sperm. Gametophytes reproduce a sexually with themselves, so they have a normal amount of chromosomes. Liverworts have a stomata that allows movements of gasses in and out, cuticle, roots, stems, and leaves.

Sphenophyta (Horsetails) are small plants. Horsetails are also nonvascular plants, but unlike liverworts, horsetails have little seedless plants. I found out that horsetails have vascular tissue. Vascular tissue means that its system conducts water, mineral nutrients, and an organic molecules. Organic molecules are made up by photosynesis. Horsetails has an independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte. A dominant sporophyte is when its plant reproduces sexually. It is good to have both of those, gametophyte and sporophyte so it can reproduce sexually and asexually because Horsetails don't have crates, so they can mate with itself. Horsetails have roots, ribbed and jointed steams, with soft needle leaves at the joints.

Coniferophytea (conifers) have large seed plants. Conifers have vascular tissue and vascular plants. Conifers have gymnosperm, which are gametophytes with tiny seed plants; it has a large sporophyte, and ovules that are not enclosed by an ovary. I remember, from the lecture in class that conifers also produce cones. Conifers have roots, steams, needle or scale leaves.

Gymnosperm (angiosperm) is both large and small plants. Angiosperm has evolved from gymnosperm. Angiosperm are vascular tissues and vascular plants. Angiosperms are seed plants that reproduce flowers that make the seed within the ovary. Angiosperm reproduces cones and seeds, and their made of herbaceous plants, grass, and most trees. Angiosperm have steams, roots, and flat leaves.

In conclusion I have learned that the plants has lots in common with each other such as that angiosperm, horsetails, and conifers are vascular plants, and liverworts are nonvascular. Conifers and horsetails are dominant sporophyte. Horsetails are independent gametophyte, and conifers have tiny gametophyte. Liverworts and angiosperm have flowers. Conifers and Angiosperm have seed and fruits. Horsetails and conifers have needles or scales as their leaves. When we looked at the leaves closely we could tell weather it was parallel, palmate, or pinnate. All four of the plants have ovules that are in closed by their ovary. They all have roots and steams. It was fun studying this unit.

May Dan Kuang

There are four main type of plants we are going to compare and contrast. They are Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and the Angiosperms. We are going to determine if they are vascular or nonvascular. Begin vascular or have vascular tissue means that they have veins that can transfer water and other nutrients throughout the plant. Not many plants have non-vascular structure unless they have a special way to transfer nutrient throughout the plant. We will also see if they are sporophytes or gametophytes. Gametophytes and sporophyte refers to the two part of the life cycle. Animals and plants like us have chromosomes. All chromosomes split and copy it again and again so that all chromosomes look the same. Gametophytes are like only egg and sperm when they split and only have half of the chromosomes. Sporophytes are like us; we have a full set of chromosomes. Lastly, we will see some of the characteristics of some class of the phyla.

The Liverworts have more than 6000 species. They are the first plants that live without the vascular tissue. Because they don't have vascular tissue, they have to use something call osmosis and diffusion to help them transfer nutrients throughout their body. Because they are lack of vascular tissue, roots, and stems they are the simplest plant. Their dominant is gametophytes.

The Horsetails have only like 15 species. They are plants that have no seed and because of that, they have sperms that can swim in the water to mate and reproduce. Their dominant is sporophytes. They are kind of a vascular plant, but then it is kind of in the middle of vascular and nonvascular. That is because they have some vascular tissue but they are seed-less plants. They do have roots and leaves. The Horsetails plant looks like a long stick with long, soft and thin leaves.

The Conifers have 550 species. The Christmas tress falls under this phyla. There is also other plant like the pines, cypress and redwood. They are the first plants that are gymnosperm, which means that seed doesn't grow fruits. They are also vascular plants. Plants in this group usually have leaves that are needle-like or scales.

The Angiosperms are the most diverse group; they include all the plants that produce flowers and fruits so they have over 250,000 species. Because they are so diverse trees, shrubs, vines and herbs are considered in this group too. More than half of the plants we see everyday is Angiosperms. The flower in this plant is the reproductive system. Because a flower's appearance is so colorful, it attracts insect to it and carry pollen from the flower to other plants.

The Liverwort is very simple and because of that, they don't have much in common with the other phyla. Liverwort and Horsetails don't have anything in common actually. But contrasting them, they have more differences. The liverwort like I say is that first plant that lives without a vascular tissue but the Horsetails does have some vascular tissue although still not quite. In this case the Liverwort is gametophytes, they only have the sperm and egg and don't have a full set of chromosomes like the Horsetails.

The Horsetails and the Conifers have more in differences also. The Conifers have Gymnosperms and Horsetails. The Conifers don't have seeds that grow inside a fruit and the Horsetails is not even Gymnosperms so they don't even produce flowers or a fruit. The Horsetails does have some vascular tissue, so they are not considered nonvascular that is same as the Conifers. That is important because having a vascular tissue kind of makes a plant better because they can spend the nutrients all over the plants, not like the ones without the vascular tissue they got to use something else to spend their nutrients throughout the whole plant.

The Conifers and the Angiosperms are both kind of Gymnosperms. They do grow flowers and fruits. They are actually the second group with Gymnosperms. Their different is that the conifer's ovules are not enclosed by the ovary, and the angiosperm's ovules are enclosed by the ovary. They are both vascular plants.

May Dan Kuang, Revision 1

There are four main phyla of plants we are going to compare and contrast. They are the liverworts, horsetails, conifers, and the angiosperms. We are going to determine if they are vascular or non vascular. Begin vascular or have vascular tissue means that they have veins that can transfer water and other nutrients throughout the plant. Not many plants have non-vascular structure because if they are non-vascular they will have to have a way to transfer nutrient throughout the plant. We will also see if they are sporophytes or gametophytes. Gametophytes and sporophyte refers to the two part of the life cycle. Animals and plants like us have chromosomes. All chromosomes split and copy it again and again so that all chromosomes look the same. Gametophytes are like only egg and sperm when they split and only have half of the chromosomes. Sporophytes are like us; we have a full set of chromosomes. Lastly, we will see some of the characteristics of some class of the phyla.

The liverworts have more than 6000 species. They are the first plants that live without the vascular tissue. Because they don't have vascular tissue, they have to use something call osmosis and diffusion to help them transfer nutrients throughout their body. Because they are lack of vascular tissue, roots, and stems they are the simplest plant. Their dominant stage is gametophytes.

The horsetails have only like 15 species. They are plants that have no seed and because of that, they have sperms that can swim in the water to mate and reproduce. Their dominant is sporophytes. They are kind of a vascular plant, but then it is kind of in the middle of vascular and non-vascular. That is because they have some vascular tissue but they are seed-less plants. They do have roots and leaves. The horsetail plant looks like a long stick with long, soft and thin leaves.

The conifers have 550 species. The Christmas tress falls under this phyla. There is also other plant like the pines, cypress and redwood. They are the first plants that are gymnosperm, which means that seed doesn't grow fruits. They are also vascular plants. Plants in this group usually have leaves that are needle-like or scales.

The angiosperms are the most diverse group; they include all the plants that produce flowers and fruits so they have over 250000 species. Because they are so diverse trees, shrubs, vines and herbs are considered in this group too. More than half of the plants we see everyday is angiosperms. The flower in this plant is the reproductive system. Because a flower's appearance is so colorful, it attracts insect to it and carry pollen from the flower to other plants.

The liverworts and horsetail are kind of in the non-vascular side. They both don't have veins that can transfer nutrients throughout the whole plant. They both are to live very close to the water because since they don't have vascular tissue. Then contrasting them, they have more in differences. The liverwort's main stage is gametophytes, and the horsetail is sporophyte.

The horsetails and the conifers have more differences also. But, the conifer doesn't have flowers and the horsetail doesn't also. Although the conifer is gymnosperms but then flowers only relate to the angiosperms. The horsetail does have some vascular tissue, so they are not consider as non-vascular that is same as the conifers. That is important because having a vascular tissue kind of makes a plant better because they can spend the nutrients all over the plants, not like the ones without the vascular tissue they got to use something else to spend their nutrients throughout the whole plant.

The angiosperms and the conifers are both gymnosperms, but then only the angiosperms have flowers so they can't relate to each other that way. Both of them are vascular plants. Their differences are that the conifer's ovules are not enclosed by the ovary, and the angiosperm's ovules are enclosed by the ovary.

Rowena Kumar

There are many different types of plants groups. For example, there is Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and angiosperm. Each plant has their own differences and similarities form each other. Some are vascular or if they are non vascular and their either a gametophyte or sporophyte. Gametophyte means that the plant can produce eggs and sperm and that each cell contains one chromosome. Sporophytes are plants that each of their cells contain two chromosomes. In the next two paragraphs you will learn a little about Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms.

The first type of plant structure that fm going to write about is the Liverworts. The Liverworts has a leafy body with no vascular tissue. Vascular tissue is a group of cells that distribute water and carbohydrates. They are unable to secondary root growth. Liverworts is a dominate gametophyte plant The Liverworts has roots, stems, and flat leaves. They are found growing in moist shady places. Rhizoids helps anchor the it. Marchantia is the most common Liverworts.

Horsetails is a seedless plant That makes it a dominant sporophyte. Like the Liverworts it also has a leafy body. They have roots, stems, and leaves. Their leaves aren't like the Liverworts, their more of a soft needlelike leaves. This plant has vascular tissue. A vascular plants root has three layers dermal tissue, ground tissue, and then the vascular tissue in the middle. Horsetails are one of the few surviving species of seedless vascular plants.

Conifers are a dominate sporophyte plant This is one of the only plants that produce cones which they produce their seeds in. The Conifers leaves are needle-like in structure. They, like all the other plants have roots, stems, and leaves. Conifers include cedar, pine, cypress, fir, hemlock, redwood, spruce, and yew. It's recorded to be the tallest vascular plant This differs from the other plants because they have cones and seeds, Their pollen are carried away by the wind. They survive in hot areas because of their water conserving needle shaped leaves.

Last, there is the Angiosperms or flowering plants, one of the largest groups. Unlike the other plant the Angiosperms has more parts. The Angiosperms has stems, roots, and leaves. They have flowers, seed or fruit, and flat leaves. Unlike all the other plants the Angiosperms has Ovules or eggs enclosed by an ovary. The Angiosperms is a dominate sporophyte. The flowers have petals, a sepal, a pistil with includes a stigma, style, and an ovary, and stamen which includes a anther and a filament. There are three different types of flower groups: hypogynous, perigynous, and epigynous. The hypogynous is a superior ovary, with one or more pistils, no fusion of the sepals, petals, stamens, or receptacle. The epigynous flower is a superior ovary, with fusion of bases of the sepals, petals, and stamens. The third group is epigynous. It is inferior ovary, fusion of the bases of the petals, and stamens to the ovary portion of the pistil. This is the only group that can produce fruit

These are four of the many plant groups. All the plants have roots, stems, and leaves. Some are dominant gametophyte and others are dominant sporophyte. All can reproduce in some way but not all have ovaries. Actually only one group has ovaries. Each plant has something unique about it to make it different form each other but one thing that they all have in common is that they are all plants.

Rowena Kumar Revision 1

There are many different types of plants groups. For example, there is liverworts, horsetails, conifers, and angiosperm. Each plant has their own differences and similarities form each other. Some are vascular or if they are non vascular and their either a gametophyte or sporophte. Gametophyte means that the plant can produce eggs and sperm and that each cell contains one chromosome. Sporophte is a plant that each of their cells contain two chromosomes. In the next two paragraphs you will learn a little about liverworts, horsetails, conifers, and angiosperms.

Each plant has their own characteristics for instance a leafy body. Only a the liverworts, horsetails, mosses, and conifers have a leafy body. One thing that all plants have are a steam„ roots, and leaves. Just because they don't have a leafy body it doesn't mean that it doesn't have any leaves. All plants have roots, leaves, and steams because they need them to carry out their everyday functions such as: making food, protecting the interior, and keeping the plant stabilized.

All plants are either in the category of dominant gametophyte or dominant sporophte. Again gametophyte means that the plant can produce eggs and sperm and that each cell contains one chromosome. Sporophte is a plant that each of their cells contain two chromosomes. Liverworts and mosses are a dominant gametophyte and horsetail, ferns, conifers, and angiosperm are a dominate sporophte.

These plant have a lot of things in common but there are a couple of things that make them different from each other as well. For example Horse tails and conifers are the only two plant that have leaves that are needle or scale like. Out of the four groups mosses are the only plant with vascular tissue. Ferns are the only plant with flat leaves and conifers are the only plant that has cones. Then there is the angiosperm, the angiosperm differs the most out of all the plant because of how it reproduces. The angiosperm makes flowers that produces flowers or seeds. The most interesting thing about them is that they have ovules or eggs enclosed by an ovary. This group also has petal, a sepal, a pistil which includes a stigma, style, an a ovary.

These are four of the many plant plant groups. All the plants have roots, stems, and leaves. Some are dominant gametophyte and others are dominant sporophte. All can reproduce in some way but not all have ovaries. Actually only one group has ovaries. Each plant has something unique about it to make it different form each other but one thing that they all have in common is that they are all plants.

Jenny Lam

There are a lot of plants with weird names like Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Anthophyta (also known as Angiosperms). These are the plants that I will be typing about. This essay will be about how similar each plant are and the differences between each plants. Some plants have very leafy bodies and some don't. Most of the plants have stems and roots.

Plants also have life spans. Usually plants that are annual are plants that germinate from seed, blossoms, and produces seed. Annual plant completes its life cycle during one growing season; dies in about one year. Plants that are biennial require two years to finish a life cycle; biennial plants lives two years the most. Plants that are perennial can last for more than two years the most. Perennial plants may produce flowers, fruits and seeds many times during its life.

Liverworts are nonvascular plants. Liverwort plants are small and are dominant gametophyte with a leafy body. Gametophyte is in the life cycle of plant that produces gametes (haploid cell). It has roots, stems, and leaves. Horsetails are small just like Liverworts. There are things that Horsetails plants have which Liverworts don't. Horsetails is part of the vascular plant and is independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte that has tiny leaves. Sporophyte is also part of the life cycle of plant that produces spores. Horsetails have roots and stems just like Liverworts.

Conifer plant is also part of vascular plants. It has little gametophyte, and a large sporophyte. Conifer plants produces cones, it also has leaves. Conifers and Horsetails are both vascular plants, but Horsetails does not produce cones. Angiosperms are similar to Conifers, but Angiosperms does not produce cones. Angiosperms are also part of the vascular plants. It produces flowers and fruits. Conifers and Angiosperms have seed plants with tiny gametophyte, and a large sporophyte, but Angiosperms have ovules that enclose by ovaries. Conifers have ovules, but does not enclose by ovaries.

In conclusion, all of the plants that I have mention about are vascular plants, except for Liverworts which is part of nonvascular plants. Most of the plants can produce stuff that needs to be produced, like flowers, fruits, cones, etc. Some plant needs to be watered and some only uses sunlight, in other words photosynthesis. These are the similarities and differences between the plants.

Joseph Laurente

In the Plant Kingdom, plants are characterized to be vascular or nonvascular plants. Vascular plants have a vascular system that transports water and other materials, and tissues that water and other minerals, while nonvascular plants do not have a vascular system simple vascular tissues. Plants are also known to have a gametophyte and sporophyte. A gametophyte is a phase of plant life cycles in which the gametes, such as egg and sperm, are produced. They are considered as a haploid, which means that each cell contains a single complete set of chromosomes and arises from the germination of a haploid pore. A sporophyte is a phase of plant life cycles in which the plant produces spores. They are considered as a diploid, which means that each cell contains two complete sets of chromosomes.

In the Plant Kingdom, there were four main types of plants that we examined and discussed during class, and they are Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms. Liverworts are one of the smallest and simplest nonvascular plants. They have a dominant gametophyte with a leafy body. Its body lacks vascular tissue, a cuticle, stomata, roots, stems, and leaves. Horsetails are different from Liverworts because they are vascular plants. They are small and have no seeds, and have an independent gametophyte. They also have a dominant sporophyte, which has roots and stems. Its stems are ribbed and jointed and have soft needlelike leaves which are found at the joints.

Conifers are similar to Horsetails because they are vascular plants. Conifers are also known as Gymnosperms, which are seed plants that have tiny gametophytes and a dominant sporophyte. The ovules on the Conifers are not enclosed by an ovary. Conifers, such as evergreen tress and shrubs with leaves modified as needles or scales, produce cones.

Angiosperms are similar to Conifers and Horsetails because they are also considered as vascular plants. Like Conifers, Horsetails also have tiny gametophytes and a dominant sporophyte. The only difference between Horsetails and Conifers is that Horsetails have ovules enclosed by an ovary, while Conifers don't. Angiosperms are a very diverse group of plants, and such examples are trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs that produce flowers and fruits.

Johnny Li

Liverworts are one of the simplest plants compared to the three divisions. 'they have dominant gametophytes with a flattened or leafy body. Liverworts mostly have flat leaves or leafy body, which make its have no use of vascular tissue. Liverwort is a nonvascular plant, which means it have no veins (xylem & phloem), stems and leaves. Their stems and roots could sometimes be seen, but it's hard to tell them apart. Liverworts mostly have flat leaves and a leafy body, which make its have no vascular tissue. Liverwort was once use for medicine but now replace by generic medicines.

Conifers are a seeded plant with little gametophytes and large sporophytes. Conifers produce a large amount of cones because it's used to reproduce. Like flowers, all cones look almost the same. The big cones that we mostly sees are female cones. Males' cones are very smaller than the female cones. The female stays longer on the tree than the male cones. Each cone has scales protecting the seed from herbivores. The seeds are pollen like grain that is carried by the wind to the female cones so it can be fertilize. They are evergreen, which means they are green all year long. The leaves of the Conifers are needles or scales. There are many different kinds of Conifers such as cedar, cypress, fir, hemlock, pine, redwood and many more. There are about 500 different species of Conifers that exist.

Horsetails are seedless plants with small independent gametophytes and a dominant sporophyte. Horsetails have jointed hollow stem and narrow, sometimes much reduced leaves. Their roots and stems consist of soft needles. The leaves of the Horsetails are very similar to the conifer because they both have the needlelike leaves, but Horsetails leaves are soft compared to Conifers.

Angiosperms are seed plant with tiny gametophytes and large sporophytes. There are many different kinds including trees, herbs, vines and shrubs. Angiosperms are one of the few plants that produce edible fruits and flowers. Angiosperms is very identical to Conifers because of the types and groups. Angiosperms is known to be the flowering plant because of the flowers and fruits it produces. It it's a vascular plant, which means it have veins. The veins of this plant are very important because it's use to carry water and nutrients to the leaves and flowers. Angiosperms is the most evolved plants compared to Horsetails, liverwort, and Conifers.

Dennis Lim

Throughout the unit of the Plant Kingdom, I have learned more things about plants than I ever did. I learned about four phyla in this unit; the Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and the Angiosperms. Each of those phyla has their own characteristics. Some plants have very much similarity to another but are not exactly the same. Some may be vascular and some may be non-vascular. If a plant has veins then it is vascular. If not, it is non-vascular.

The Liverworts, also known as Hepatophyta, have a leafy body and are a dominant gametophyte. It has a non-vascular tissue. Like a typical plant, it has roots, stems and leaves. Unlike the other three phyla, this is the only plant with a dominant gametophyte. Also, it is the only division that has a vascular tissue.

Unlike the Liverworts, the Horsetails, as known as Sphenophyta, does not have a leafy body. It has a non-vascular body like the Liverworts. Similar to the Conifers and the Angiosperms, it is a dominant sporophyte. Like the Liverworts, the Horsetails have roots, stems and leaves. The Horsetails and the Conifers have leaves that are modified as needles or scales.

The next phyla I am going to talk about are the Conifers, also known as Coniferophyta. It has a leafy body like the Liverworts. The Conifers are a dominant sporophyte. Unlike the Liverworts and the Horsetails, it has not roots. But it has stems and leaves like it. Like the Angiosperms, it got seeds and/or fruits. It also has a vascular tissue. The Conifers are the only phylum that has cones. Like the Horsetails, the Conifers have leaves that are modified as needles or scales.

The last phylum I am going to talk about are the Angiosperms, also known as Anthophyta. Like the Horsetails and unlike the Liverworts and Conifers, it does not have a leafy body. It has a vascular tissue like the Conifers, it has a vascular tissue. The Angiosperms are the only phylum that has flowers. Like the Conifers, it has seeds and/or fruits. What makes the Angiosperms different from the other phyla, is that it is the only phylum that has ovules, or eggs, that is enclosed by an ovary.

In the unit of the plant kingdom, I have learned more about different plants. Not only their looks but how they are similar and different. The phyla I found most interesting are the Angiosperms because it seems more unique than the other ones because it's characteristics are more different than the other ones. The one I found most uninteresting are the Liverworts because it seems too typical.

David Liang

Plants there are much different kind of plants out there and they all categorizes by their way of structure and out do they work. Like there are the Liverworts they are mostly leaf. The Horsetails, which have leaves at the joints. The Conifers that it can grow pine cone. And also some plant has the vascular system and some don't, the vascular system are the tissues that transport water and other materials within a plant make up the vascular system. The vascular system run from near the tips of the roots to the tips of the stems and into all over t he leaves. The vascular system that it can mostly run through the whole part of the plant.

Hepatophyta, which known as the Liverworts are the very simplest of most of the plants. Its whole body is mostly considering leafy that which holds the vascular tissues. The Liverworts has parts like a cuticle, stomata, roots, and stems. The Liverworts are type of plant that has a vascular system. The Liverworts unlike the Angiosperms which it doesn't grow flowers.

The Horsetails which of course are another different type of plants. The Horsetails has soft leaves looking like needles and it doesn't have and seed at all. And. then it has a small independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte consisting of roots and ribbed and jointed stems. Horsetails comparing to the Liverworts which both plants structure are totally different from each other. Liverworts leaves are flat and wide and Horsetails' leaves are pointy like needles

Conifers are another different kind of plants. Conifers are big tall trees that grow cones has a spreading seed to reproduce over and over. They are seed plants with tiny gametophytes and a large sporophyte. Comparing Conifers to Horsetails they sort of in comment in some say. Like Horsetails and Conifers both has pointy need leaves.

At long last the Angiosperms are the Flowering plants, of course Angiosperms are plants that grow flowers. Angiosperms has seed plants with tiny gametophytes. Angiosperms also have a very large sporophyte and ovules that are enclosed by an ovary. This is a very diverse group that includes trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs which that can produce flowers and fruits. The Flowering plants fruit and Conifers cones are really in common because of the cone and fruit has seed inside which both are used for reproducing.

There is many different kind of plants in this world but they are all different and the same in someway and somehow. All of the plants live for only one reason the reason is reproducing.

Jing Liang

There are many phylum in the plant kingdom. The ones we learn most about are Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms. These are only four of the many phyla in the flower kingdom. We learn these phyla from a few different labs. We did labs on type of plants, the leaf structure and arrangement, and flower structure. In these labs, we observe and learn the difference between these phyla and the similarity.

Liverworts is the only plant, out of these four plants that is nonvascular. Liverworts is the simplest plants. It has 6000 species of this phylum. It has a leafy body, with lacks of vascular tissue, roots, stems and leaves. These plants are small. Hosetails are vascular plants, opposite of Liverworts. This plant also have roots, and jointed stem. This plant is long and has skinny and soft leaves. It has only 15 species in the hosetails phylum. Conifers are also vascular plants. It have 550 species. There leaves are also skinny but they are harder then the Horsetails ones. There is one thing in this phylum that all the others don't have. They have cones and that's what make different from other phyla. Angiosperms is also a vascular plant. It has 250,000 species. It have more species then all other plants combine. These are the plants that have flower and make fruits. This phylum is a very diverse group.

Out of these four groups, I think the most advance are the Angiosperms. This is because they are the only phylum that can produce flowers and fruits. Also they are the only ones that have colors that is not green or brown. Also, they come in many shapes and many sizes and they have seeds. They have a tiny gametophyte and a large sporophyte. Liverworts are the simplest because of their nonvascular system and the lack of roots and leaves. Also they have no seeds. They have a dominant gametophyte. Conifers are different, they have seeds. They also have cones and they have leaves that are like needles. They have a tiny gametophyte and a large sporophyte. Horsetails are seedless. They also have a independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte.

These are some of the phyla that we learned. Out of all these phyla I think that the Angiosperms are the best because of there range of colors and the range of designs.

Yan Jun Lu

In these two weeks we are learning the plant kingdom, it is about different kinds of plants. There are different kinds of plants like Liverworts, Horsetails, mosses, ferns, Conifers, and Angiosperms. Different kinds plants have their different characteristic, not every plant have the same characteristic. Some plants will have stems, roots, and cones...

We have to compare the four different kinds of plants: Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms. Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms, all plants have Dominant gametophytes and leaves. Liverworts, Conifers, and Angiosperms characteristic has leafy body. Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms have the dominant sporophyte, but Liverworts doesn't have it. Conifers are the only one that does not have any roots and stems. Angiosperms have flowers, seeds or fruit, and ovules (eggs). And Conifers is the one has cones and leaves modified as needles or scales. Liverworts are the simplest types plants.

The conclusion for the plant kingdom is plants have Dominant gametophytes and leaves. But many plants have leafy body and Dominant sporophyte. Flowers, seeds or fruit, and Ovules in closed by and ovary, these things will have on Angiosperms. Those are the normal plants that we learned.

Cherry Ann Mendoza

Throughout the plant labs, assignments that we've been through, notes we took, and lectures, I've noticed the differences and similarities between the Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms. The differences and similarities are based on the plant characteristics: vascular or non vascular, sporophyte, and gametophyte. Based on my findings and notes from lectures, I learned which of the four plants are vascular or non vascular; have/don't have a gametophyte or sporophyte. I also learned that not all plants are the same, there are a lot of different types of plants and not just one. There are also such things as "Superior ovaries" and "Inferior ovaries"; the pattern of the veins and leaves are more than one style. Before this unit, I never knew anything about plants except for the basics: need water to survive, have photosynthesis, most are green, grows, dies, and I was able to name few of the parts like the stem, petals, bud, anthers, leaves, and roots. Now that we were introduced to more deeper knowledge of the plant kingdom, I now know more than what I knew before. In this essay, I will be comparing and contrasting those four types of plants that I mentioned above based on what we've been doing the past week the best I can.

First off, I will introduce you to the basic information of each type of plants, then I will talk about the differences and similarities between them. Liverworts are known to be the simplest plants. They are small, with roots, stems, stomata, cuticle, and leaves. It also have a dominant gametophyte with a flattened or `leafy" body that lacks vascular tissue. Liverworts live close to water. Horsetails on the other hand are seedless; they have roots and stems that are jointed. It has needlelike leaves. In contrast, Liverworts are different from Horsetails because of the shape and form of their leaves, and Liverworts only have gametophyte unlike Liverworts which have both gametophyte and sporophyte. They are both the same because they both contain gametophyte and roots. Conifers are seed plants with tiny gametophytes and a large sporophyte. They produce cones. Its leaves are like needles just like Horsetails. Unlike the two: Horsetails and Liverworts, it is a seed plant. Angiosperms are flowering plants. The are seed plants with tiny gametophytes and a large sporophyte. Some diverse groups of Angiosperms like trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs produce flowers and fruits. In contrast with Conifers, Angiosperms produce flowers and fruits while Conifers produce cones. Within similarities, they both have tiny gametophyte and a large sporophyte; they both are seed plants. Liverworts are non-vascular (doesn't have vascular tissues or vascular system that carries and transport water and other minerals within the plant), unlike Conifers and Angiosperms which are vascular (have vascular tissues or vascular system that carries and transport water and other minerals within the plant).

All in conclusion, as I observed closely the characteristics of the four plants, and as I read my notes/handouts, I realized that Liverworts and Horsetails are somewhat alike while Conifers and Angiosperms are somewhat alike too. Their leaves may differ, as well as what some may produce (cones or flowers and fruits). The first two are seedless while the last two are seed plants. There may be more differences between their characteristics, but they are still similar from each other because all of them belong to the Plant Kingdom.

Ashley Mooring

There are many kinds of plants in this world. One plant is called a Liverworts. It is a simple small plant. It has a dominant gametophyte, with a flattened body that lacks vascular tissue. It has cuticles, stomata, roots, stems and leaves. Another plant is called Mosses. It is small also, most of them have simple vascular tissues. They have sporophyte consisting of a bare stalk. It has a dominant leafy green gametophyte that lacks roots, stems and leaves. The Liverworts and the Mosses have one thing in common and it is that they have gametophyte. They have many thing that are not in common and that is the Mosses don't have don't have roots and the Liverworts do have roots.

Horsetails are another type of plant. It is seedless and is independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte. It has roots and ribbed jointed stems with soft needle like leaves. Conifers are another. This is a seed plant with tiny gametophyte, and large sporophyte. They produce cones and evergreen trees. The both of the plants have gametophyte and sporophyte. They both aren't seedless only the Horsetails is seedless.

The Ferns are seedless too. They have a small gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte. It has roots, horizontal stems and leaves. Angiosperms are plants that have flowers and fruits that grow on them. They are seed paints and they have a tiny gametophytes, a larger sporophyte. They have a very diverse group. The Ferns and Angiosperms really don't have nothing in common. They have things very different from each other. The Ferns don't have fruits, but the Angiosperms do.

Sweetie Mortensen

The Liverworts is small plants that has a dominant gametophyte with leafy body that lacks vascular tissue, cuticle, stomata, roots, stems and leaves. I think that the Angiosperms is also vascular. It has tissue of sporophyte individuals, the gametophytes of seed plants depends more on sporophyte for nutrients and water.

The Horsetails is seedless. It is non vascular. It is independent gametophyte and a dominant moss-like sporophyte with roots, stems and leaves. The Conifers they produce cones. It's non vascular mostly evergreen trees and shrubs with leaves modified as needless or scales.

David Nguyen

The four plants that are going to be compared and contrast are the Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and the Angiosperms.

The Liverworts are a small simple plant. They are also called the Hepatophyta. There are about 6,000 species of Liverworts. They do not have veins (xylem and phloem). They have a dominant gametophyte with a flattened or leafy body that lacks vascular tissue, a cuticle, stomata, roots, stems, and leaves. They are different from the Conifers and the Angiosperms which have tiny gametophytes. They are different from the Horsetails in that they have the pistils over the ovaries and the Horsetails have pistils underneath the ovaries. The Liverworts are called the hypogynous and the Horsetails are called the epigynous. Other plants that are similar to the liverwort and are also hypogynous are the Conifers and the Angiosperms.

The Horsetails, also called the Sphenophyta. There are 15 different species of Horsetails. They are seedless with a small, independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte consisting of roots and ribbed and jointed stems with soft needlelike leaves at the joints. They, like the confers and the Angiosperms have a gametophyte and a sporophyte but the sporophyte of the Angiosperms and the Conifers are not dominant but instead are large. The Horsetails are an epigynous plant which are different from the rest of the plants because of the ovaries and where it is located at. They are vascular unlike the Liverworts.

The Conifers are also called the Coniferophyta and there are 550 species of them. They are Gymnosperms which are seed plants with tiny gametophytes, and a large sporophytes and ovules not enclose by an ovary and produces cones. Most of the plants are evergreen trees and shrubs with leaves that modify as needles or scales. That means that they have tiny gametophyte which is similar to the Horsetails and the Angiosperms, and a large sporophyte similar to the Angiosperms. They have seeds with a well protective outer coating cones. They are a hypogynous plant which is similar to the Liverworts and the Angiosperms.

The Angiosperms which are flowering plant and are called the Anthophyta and have 250,000 species of them. They have seeds with tiny gametophytes and a large sporophyte and ovules that enclosed by an ovary which makes them similar to the Conifers. They are a very diverse group of plants that includes trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs that produces flowers and plants. They have pollens in the gametophytes. Tiny gametophytes are similar to the Conifers and the Horsetails. Large sporophytes like the Conifers and the Liverworts. They are a hypogynous plant which similar to the Liverworts and the Conifers but are different from the Horsetails.

Nancy Nguyen

Each plant has it's own characteristics. It can differ in many ways. The plant divisions that I looked at were Liverworts (Hepatophyta), Horsetails (Sphenophyta), Conifers (Coniferophyta), and the Angiosperms (Anthophyte). They can be separated by their characteristics.

Liverworts are non-vascular plants. They are the simplest plants of the want kingdom. They have a leafy body with a dominant gametophyte. Horsetails are seedless plants with a dominant sporophyte. They consist of roots, ribbed and jointed stems; and their leaves are needle like. Conifers consist of needle tike or scales leaves. They are gymnosperms with a large sporophyte and they have ovules that are not enclosed by an ovary. The angiosperm has a dominant sporophyte with roots, stems, leaves and vines and herbs that produce fruits and flowers. They also have ovules enclosed by an ovary.

Some similarities between two plants are conifers and angiosperms. They are seed plants. Also conifers share something with the liverworts, which are leafy bodies- Another thing that the conifers, angiosperms and the horsetails have in common are they ail belong to the dominant sporophyte. Another thing that conifers share with the horsetails is that they both have leaves that are known as needles or scales. One more thing that these plants have in common is that the liverworts and the angiosperms both consist of flat leaves.

Plants that are different from each other are that the liverworts. They don't have stems, leaves or roots. All the rest do. The liverworts also are the only plant that belongs to the dominant gametophyte. Also angiosperms are the only plants with flowers. Another plant that differs from ail of them also is the angiosperm. The angiosperm is the only plant that has ovules, which are enclosed by an ovary. The angiosperms also are the only plant that produces fruits. The conifers also have something that separates it from the other plants as well, which is that this is the only plant that produces cones.

Learning about the different kinds of plant phylum made me recognize plants more easily. Now 1 know what are different from each type of plant and what things are the same. Being able to compare and contrast the phylum made me understand it more.

Jessica Ramos

In the plants kingdom there are many phyla's. There are a total of 12 phyla's. The one's that I'm going to be compare and contras are the Liverworts (Hepatophyta), Horsetails (Sphenophyta), Conifers (Coniferophyta), and the Angiosperms (Anthophyta). These phyla's can be separated by their characteristics but yet they are classified in the same group because they share the same characteristics. Their roots, leaves, stems etc can separate them.

The first phylum is the Liverworts. Liverworts are non-vascular plants. They are the simplest plants of the plant kingdom. They have a leafy body with a dominant gametophyte. The second phylum is the Horsetails. They are a seedless plant with a dominant sporophyte. They consist of roots, ribbed and jointed stems, and their leaves are needlelike. The third phylum is Conifers. Conifers consist of needlelike or scales leaves. They are Gymnosperms with a large sporophyte and they have ovules that are not enclosed by an ovary. The fourth one is the Angiosperms. The Angiosperms has a dominant sporophyte with roots, stems, leaves and vines and herbs that produce fruits and flowers. They also have ovules enclosed by an ovary.

Some similarities between these plants are that both Conifers and Angiosperms are seed plants. Also Conifers share something with the Liverworts, which are leafy bodies. Another thing that the Conifers, Angiosperms and the Horsetails have in common are they all belong to the dominant sporophyte. Another thing that Conifers share with the Horsetails is that they both have leaves that are known as needles or scales. One more thing that these plants have in common is that the Liverworts and the Angiosperms both consist of flat leaves.

Plants that are different from each other are that the Liverworts don't have stems, leaves or roots, while the rest of the plants do. The Liverworts also are the only plant that belongs to the dominant gametophyte. Also Angiosperms are the only plants with flowers. Another plant that differs from all of them also is the angiosperm. The Angiosperms is the only plant that has ovules, which are enclosed by an ovary. The Angiosperms also are the only plant that produces fruits. The Conifers also have something that separates it from the other plants as well, which is that this is the only plant that produces cones.

I learned that some plants do share the same characteristics but also they don't. I also learned that there are 12 phyla's in the plant kingdom. Also that they can be broken down by their characteristics such as their roots, leaves etc. I also learned that the Liverworts are the plants that have the least amount of features so they're also known as the simplest plants in the animal kingdom. Also that each plant has its own feature that separates them from the rest, but then again there are some that have the same features that also brings the plants together. So then again they can be differed from one another but its how they all apply to plant kingdom that brings them all together.

David Ross

Plants come in many different shapes and sizes. The plant's species determines the plant's characteristics. Plants have evolved and adapted to fit their surroundings. From the primitive fern to the carnivorous Venus fly trap, plants come in many varieties, which all have adapted to live in a certain area and climate.

For example, there are many types of plants that have evolved that is dependant living near a water source. These plants are better known as nonvascular plants. Nonvascular plants lack the vascular tissue called xylem and phloem that vascular plants have. Visualization allows plants to transfer dissolved nutrients through the plant's specialized cells. There are two types of vascularization, phloem and xylem. There are many types of seedless vascular plants. Some examples are ferns, Horsetails, and club mosses. Seedless vascular plants derive a large fraction of their nourishment from the sun and the plants have competition for this source of energy. Taller plants, under crowded conditions, are likely to monopolize the limited sunlight and become even taller. The height gained by these plants requires vascularization. The development of vascularization allows communication between the roots and leaves of plants that help plants grow to the height they now are. Because nonvascular plants can't circulate the water around their bodies to their leaves and stems like vascular plants can, they need to live very close to a water source like a stream, lake or river.

A good example of a nonvascular plant is a liverwort. Liverworts are a group of plants whose physical appearance can sometimes resemble dripping human mucus. The leaves of a liverwort are usually only one cell thick. Often the leaves of a liverwort are divided into two or more lobes, and sometimes the lobes are folded to form various shapes.

Unlike Liverworts, Horsetails are vascular plants. These types of plants are sporophytes, which mean they don't reproduce by flowering, but by giving off spores to mate. Gametophytes and sporophyte refers to the two part of the life cycle. Animals and plants like us have chromosomes. All chromosomes split and copy it again and again so that all chromosomes look the same. Horsetails leaves are like rough hairs. This is why they are commonly called whisk weeds. Horsetails is a hardy perennial. Most people have this growing in their backyards. It grows to about 18 inches high. In the spring makes sure plant is under control, it spreads quickly. During the summer cut back plants that are beginning to die back to stop the spores spreading. After the harvest in the fall, cut down to the ground, again this stops the spores spreading.

One of most commonly known and liked types of plants is the Angiosperms, which are flowering plants. Instead of using spores to reproduce, Angiosperms produce flowers. The flowers are the way that Angiosperms can spread their seeds in many places to continue their species. All flowers consist of a stigma, ovary, pistil and two stamens. When the pollen from the stamen gets on the flower's pistil, the pollen fertilizes the eggs in the ovary. If the flower's ovary is pollinated then the plant bears fruit. The fruit is a container for seeds to travel to other places. When an animal eats the fruit and defecates in another place, the seeds are planted in another place.

And last but not least are the Conifers. Conifers, and other evergreen shrubs, are ideal for providing this structure because they come in many different colors, shapes and growing habits. All are hardy, easy to care for and long lived. They are also interesting and versatile; from hedges that give us privacy and absorb the noise and pollution of local traffic, to dwarf ground-cover plants that provide a perfect foil to flowering bedding plants and bulbs. Most Conifers are woody perennials and are biennial. Conifers are vascular and that's why they don't have to be by a main water source to survive.

Sam Tang

In biology class we did a unit on plants. In this unit we studied the different parts of plants, and more. We-also learned how to tell if -the plant is a hypogynous, a superior ovary, a perigynous, which is another superior ovary, or if it is a epigynous, which is a inferior ovary. Now that we have learned enough about four different types of plants, we can compare and contrast them. The four different plants are Liverwort, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms (which are the flowering plants that produce flowers, fruits, and etc.).

Horsetails are vascular plants. Vascular plants are plants that has vessels that helps sap to circulate throughout the plant body. You can see the vessels by looking at the leaves of plants. The little veins that you see on the leaves are the vessels. Liverworts are non-vascular, you cannot see vessels on the Liverworts' leaves. Conifers are vascular, and so are the Angiosperms. The Angiosperms' vessels are seeable on the leaves.

Gametophyte and the sporophyte are two phases that plants go through in their life cycle. But a plant can't have a gametophyte phase and sporophyte phase. The plant is either a gametophyte type or sporophyte type. The sporophyte is when a plant produce spores instead of gamete. Gamete is what the gametophyte type plant produces. The plant that is in the gametophyte type is the Liverworts. The other plats are sporophytes. Those type of plants are the Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms.

There are two superior ovaries and an inferior ovary: the two superior ovaries is the hypogynous and the perigynous. The inferior ovary is the epigynous. The superior ovaries, the hypogynous is not fused, and the perigynous is fused. The inferior ovary, the epigynous is kind of fused but it is also kind of not fussed. The Mini Carnation, which is a type of Angiosperms is a hypogynous.

After the unit I learned how to identify if a plant have a superior or inferior ovary. Also I can identify different types of characteristics on different types of plants. I learned that Astromera are is an inferior ovary and the Mini Carnation. is a superior ovary. Altogether I thought that this unit was a interesting unit. It taught me a lot of things about plants that I have never known or noticed before.

Lanishia Thomas

The plant kingdom is a very large variety. There are Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms. Them four plants have a lot of diversity from each other. Liverworts have leafy body, dominant gametophyte, sepals, peals, receptacle, stamen, pistils, and superior ovary. Then Horsetails carry dominant gametophyte, dominant sporophyte, roots, stems, leaves, sepals, petals, receptacle, stamen, pistils, superior ovary, and fusion of the bases of the sepals, petals, and stamens. Conifers carry dominant gametophyte, dominant sporophyte, flowers, cones, leaves modified as needles or scales. Angiosperms carries dominant sporophyte, flowers, seeds, and fruits. As you can notice, they all seem to carry dominant gametophyte and dominant sporophyte. leaves and flowers. Liverworts and Horsetails are similar because they have about six or seven of the same characteristics as each other. Liverworts are any moss-like bryophyte of the class Hepatica growing chiefly on damp ground, rocks, or tree trunks. Horsetails are a nonflowering plant of the genus Equisetum family Equisetaceae with hollow jointed stems bearing scaly leaves and a spike-like cone bearing scores. Conifers are any of a class Pinopsidae of chiefly evergreen trees and shrubs as those of the pine and cypress families that bear both seeds and pollen on dry scales arranged as a cone.

Angiosperms evolved from Gymnosperms, and make up the fifth phylum of seed plants. Angiosperms seeds develop within a fruit. Angiosperms are the most recently evolved of all plant phyla. Liverworts and Angiosperms are similar to each other, because they both carry dominant gametophyte.

Liverworts and Conifers are similar, because they both carry dominant gametophyte. So I'm guessing the dominant gametophyte is a very popular characteristic. So in some kind of way, they all carry the same characteristics.

Helen Tran

As you look around the places you'll be able to see a lot of plants. Through this unit, I get to learn more about the plants and was able to have a closer look at it. I also was able to see something that I didn't imagine how it would look like till I got to take a closer look at it. Having the chance to learn the different structures, characteristics, and what group each plants belongs in and why made me realize that I have learned more than I did know before, like only knowing that they have mostly green leaves and whatever green is called plants but I am wrong. However though, throughout this essay I would only be talking about four divisions: Liverwort, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms. From these four divisions we were able to learn more about it and get to see the difference and similarities of it. Beside looking at the outside of the plants we was also able to cut open the Angiosperms and take a look inside, and for the other divisions we was just able to look at its leaves and its characteristic on the outside.

The first division would be the Liverworts, the simplest plants compare to the other 3 divisions. It is small and has gametophytes with a flattened or leafy body that do not really need vascular tissues. Also the Liverworts do not have veins, so the Liverworts would be consider a nonvascular plant with gametophytes. We wasn't able to have a closer look on this plant like we did with the other 3 divisions but yet from the picture on the handout the leaf is flat and in a way it is wide, in a circle form but not a complete circle looking.

The leaves of the Horsetails would be very different compare to the Liverworts. The Horsetails leaves are needle likes but the Liverworts leaves is flat like I said before. Also the Horsetails is seedless, with small; own gametophytes and a saprophyte that is highly branched and has tiny leaves but it are hard in telling which is the roots or stems. The Horsetails is green with leaves that are needle looking and branches looking just like a real Horses' tail but it isn't spiky like the Horsetails. From the look on the outside it was spiky and pointy and it didn't really have any smell to it.

Alike the Horsetails the Conifers has needle looking leaves and also some are scales looking. The Conifers has Gymnosperms that constructs cones, which makes the Conifers seed plants with tiny gametophytes, and a large sporophyte. The Conifers is mostly a green plant or evergreen trees that has shrubs with leaves that are needles or scales. The masculine plant pinecones are much bigger compare to the feminine pinecones. At some point the Conifers is very much alike to the Horsetails plant except that the Conifers is much bigger than the Horsetails.

Unlike the Liverworts, Horsetails, and Conifers, the Angiosperms are a flowering plants, it is also a seed plant with small gametophytes, a large sporophytes and ovules with this together by an ovary. The Angiosperms is a very diverse group that includes trees, shrubs, and vines that conducts flowers and fruits. Like in class we were able to have a closer look of it, we were able to classify it either if it was a hypogynous flower, perigynous flower or an epigynous flower. We also had a closer look at the different parts of the flowers, like the pedal, sepal, receptacle, stamen, pistil and also the eggs. Beside the parts of the flower we was also able to see the different leaf arrangements of the flower, seeing whether if it is a whirl, opposite, or alternate. Like the Mini Carnation we have seen in class was an example of a hypogynous, superior ovary. This class of Angiosperms has a petal, sepals, and receptacle. When we cut it opened it has another, stamen, style, and ovary that has eggs in it. The Mini Carnation's egg is bunched up and tiny circles. The other flower we had a closer look in was the Pink Lavender who is somewhat differ to the Mini Carnations, its pedal and sepals looks kind of alike except that the pedals has some black spots on it and the sepals don't. The sepal is not green like the Carnation's it is actually pink and connected to the receptacle. Inside the plants were the filament, style, anther, and ovary with eggs. The eggs in this flower isn't bunched up circle it is actually oval looking. Also this plant is an example of a perigynous, superior ovary plant.

Overall throughout this unit we got a chance to have a better understand of the plants that we all have seen around but never had a deep look and understanding about it, till now. From this unit I have understand more about the plants structures, like the leaves arrangements on plants. Telling if it's a whirl arrangement like the blossom, opposite like the Fichus, or alternation leaves arrangement like the Asarum canadense plant. Also in class we had a chance to cut a little piece of the stem and look at it up close with the microscope, and from it I seen how the stem look like, we can see the dermal, cork, and vascular, it was stringy looking but interesting. In conclusion, I have had a chance to look deeply in a plant and having a better understanding of it.

Helen Tran Revision

As you look around the places you'll be able to see a lot of plants that belongs in the plant kingdom. The plant kingdom consists of 12 different divisions. However though, throughout this essay I would only be talking about only four divisions: Liverwort, Horsetail, Conifers, and Angiosperms. From these four divisions we were able to learn more about it and get to see the difference and similarities of it. The plant kingdom is divided in two groups the non-vascular plants and the vascular plants. As you read on I would be talking more about it and which of the four different divisions is vascular and which is non-vascular.
The first division would be the Hepatophyte or the liverwort. The liverwort is the simplest plants compare to the other 3 divisions. It is small and has gametophytes with a flattened or leafy body that do not need vascular tissues. Also the Liverworts do not have veins, so the liverworts would be consider a non-vascular plant alike the horsetail.
The leaves of the Sphenophyta (horsetail) would be different compare to the liverworts in certain ways. The horsetail leaves are needle like but the liverworts leaves are flat like I said before. Also the horsetail is seedless, with small; own gametophytes and a saprophyte that is highly branched and has tiny leaves but it are hard in telling which is the roots or stems. Alike the liverworts the horsetail is non-vascular meaning horsetail is also a simple plant.
The leaves that the Coniferophyta or also known as Conifers are needle looking kind of similar to the horsetail yet some of the conifer's leaves are scales looking. At some point the conifers may look the same as the Horsetail plant except that the conifers is much bigger than the horsetail and the conifers is a vascular plant and the horsetail is a non-vascular plant which breaks them up in a different way. The conifers have gymnosperm that constructs cones, which makes the Conifers seed plants with tiny gametophytes, and a large sporophyte. The Conifers is mostly a green plant or evergreen trees that has shrubs with leaves that are needles or scales. The masculine plant pinecones are much bigger compare to the feminine pinecones.
Unlike the liverworts, horsetails, and conifers, the Anthophyta (angiosperms) is a flowering plants, it is also a seed plant with small gametophytes, a large sporophytes and ovules with this together by an ovary. The Angiosperms is a very diverse group that includes trees, shrubs, and vines that conducts flowers and fruits. Alike the conifers the anthophyta is a vascular plant, meaning they both has cells collecting nutrients and etc to its roots, stems, and leaves.
Overall we got a chance to have a better understanding of the plants that we all have seen around but never had a deep look of it, till now. From this unit I have understand more about the plants structures, like the leaves arrangements on plants. Also we get to get to see how each plant may look the same on the outside yet it can be completely be different from each other that puts them in different divisions. Like the conifers and the horsetail, they both have needle looking leaves but they both are in different division and the conifer is a vascular plant and the horsetail isn't. In addition the angiosperm and the liverworts might some how seem like they are in the same division but they really isn't because the angiosperm is a vascular plant and the liverworts is a non-vascular plant like I said before. In conclusion, I have had a chance to look deeply in a plant and having a better understanding of it.

Diana Uriarte

In the plant kingdom plants can have many different characteristics. Some plants are non-vascular and others are vascular, others are vascular. Some plants are around all year long and only last a year and others are around all year long and live for lots of years whether it's a few years or hundreds of years. There are types of plants that don't have flowers or many leafs and some are able to produce their own seeds and others aren't capable of doing so. The structure of the leafs of plants can be very different from each other. They can be parallel or pinnate and they can also have a certain pattern like alternative, opposite or whorl. Plants have different divisions and within those divisions there are different types of characteristics.

The stems of a plant are to support the things attached to a plant like leafs, flowers, fruits or anything else that they may have. Roots don't only help to absorb water for the plant but they also help in keeping the plant in place. Some plants are woody and others aren't. Liverworts and Mosses both have leafy bodies. But the leafs of the mosses are modified into needles. Leafs use photosynthesis and some are able to store water.

Liverworts, Mosses, Horsetails, and Ferns all have roots, leaves and stems except for the Horsetails. A lot of plants don't have flowers or flat leaves. That all has to do with the way the plant adapts to its surroundings. Plants that produce seeds or fruit have a purpose to do so. For the plants that have flowers they have petals, sepal, receptacle, stamen and pistol. Not all plants have flowers but this would be for a plant like the Angiosperms.

Whatever the characteristics on a plant are they always have a purpose. That is why different plants from different places have different characteristics. Plants have to adapt to whatever circumstances there are. For example if the place where a plant is there is very little water then that plant can probably store water. Or if the plant needs a lot of sun then the leaves on the plant will probably be big and wide so that they can catch a lot of sun light. Whatever it is plants have to adapt to they usually do it well and having to survive to different things is what gives plants their different characteristics.

Michael Vo

Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms are all classes of the Plant Kingdom. These plants have many different types and looks but they share a lot of the same characteristics and some forms of design. The reason these plants share the same style and other stuff is that they all evolved from one plant that adapted to many characteristics because of the environment the plant is living in.

Liverworts come with leafy body and a lot of leaves. All the leaves from Liverworts are flat bodied. Liverworts are unique because most of the plants are different compare to the Liverworts. Only thing is not unique about the Liverworts is that other plants has leaves also such as the Conifers because they both have leaves.

Dominate saprophytes is what a Horsetails is, which is being made by two cells/chromosomes. This is also a unique characteristic because none of these plants here are made up of dominant saprophytes. Horsetails also have stems on the type of plants under the class. The leaves of a Horsetails also are evolved into useful unlike other plants photosynthesis is the only thing the leaves are use for but for Horsetails their leaves come modified. Evolved for a while now, the Horsetails have leaves that are scale like or having needles in the leaves, which can do more things than just photosynthesis.

Conifers have distinctive characteristics also because Conifers have cones. Cones have been use for many things but what humans believe is that cones are shields to protect the eggs inside of it. Conifers also have ovules/eggs that are located inside of an ovary, which makes Conifers body plan is like humans.

Flowers, we see them everywhere but what are they really, well their just Angiosperms. Flower is a class under Angiosperms. Angiosperms are very important. The reason Angiosperms are so important is that these plants grow seeds or fruit. Seeds or fruit meaning these plants help human to grow into existence because humans need food and these plants make food. Angiosperms share something even though this classes is very different but the Conifers and Angiosperms are a like because they are both classes that have ovules that are inside of an ovary which makes two plants in this kingdom to have same type of body plan as humans.

Brandon Williams

The purpose of this plant unit was to learn about the different groups and characteristics of plants in the plant kingdom. Some the different plants in the plant kingdom to name a few are the Liverwort, the Horsetails, the Mosses, the Ferns, and the Conifers. Some of the characteristics are: leafy body, dominant gametophyte, dominate sporophyte, and vascular tissue.

The plants with leafy bodies:

The plants with dominant gametophyte:

The plants with dominant sporophyte:

The plants with vascular tissue:

The plant unit went by sort of fast but I did learn some stuff from it. We set out to learn about the different groups and characteristics of plants in the plant kingdom, I hope that is what we did. I had fun this unit.

Kenny Wong

This essay is about four kind of plants. They are Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and angiosperm. They all have their own characteristic and are a little different from each other. Liverwort is a very simple little plant. Horsetails is a seedless with a small independent gametophytes and a dominant sporophyte. Conifers are gymnosperm that produce cones.

Liverworts are very simple plants that have a dominant gametophytes with a leafy body. They lacks vascular tissues, cuticle, stomata, roots, stems, and leaves. Liverworts are annual plants. They have medical uses.

Horsetails are seedless, have an independent gametophytes and a dominant sporophyte consisting of roots and ribbed and jointed stems with needlelike leaves sticking out of the joints. They usually grow on trees.

Conifers are large trees. They are perennial. They are Gymnosperms, which are plants with seeds, with tiny gametophytes and large sporophytes, and ovules not enclose by an ovary. They produce cones. And they have needlelike leaves.

Angiosperms are very different from the above plants. Because Angiosperms are flowering plants. They are seed plants with tinny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules enclose by an ovary. Angiosperms have pinnate leaves and they are biennial plants.

There are differences between the four plants. Liverworts don't have stems, roots, and flowers. Horsetails are seedless and have needlelike leaves like Conifers.

Angiosperms are the only kind of the four plants that have produces flowers.

Peter Wong

In the past weeks we had an unit about Plants. We had learn about the types of plants and what those of type of plants can do. We had couple of labs on the plants, we look, and dissected it. We also look under an microscope and observer the plant cells and the leaf patterns. We get to see the different structures of each type of plant and see what they are able to do. The plants we saw n learn was Liverworts which is an nonvascular plant. The second plant we learn was the Conifers which is have needle like leafs. The third is Angiosperms is roses. The last one is the Horsetails which are seedless.

The liverwort plant has around six thousand species. It is an nonvascular plant and it is an Hepatophyta. Like all plants it have stems roots and leaves. The Liverworts have flat leaves also the Liverworts have leafy body. The way it got his name was people thought it cure for diseases. The liverwort is known for the simplest plant. The liverwort is called non vascular because it have no veins. Liverworts are mostly found in shady areas. The male gametophytes has an flat top and the female is like a mushroom with flaps.

The Conifers plants are like pine trees and other more. The conifer type has needles as leaves and some of the conifer have. Also the phylum is the Coniferophyta. The Conifers have Gymnosperms that help make cones. The evergreen and the shrubs mostly have needles leaves or scale cones. There is at lease 500 of different species. Some of the different species are cedar, cypress, fir, hemlock, pine, redwood, spruce, and yew. The largest of the conifer type plant is the Redwood tree. The conifer are mostly found in dry regions.

Angiosperms evolved from gymnosperm. Angiosperms are fruit type of plants. The fruit contains ovary that have seeds inside. It is also call the flowering plant. The shrubs, vines and herbs produce flowers and fruits. There are 250,000 different species of Angiosperms. The Angiosperms are vascular plants. We saw some of the types of Angiospermsis class. There was some of the different types and color of it. In the classroom there was an coleus which have big purple leaves. The other Angiosperms was the Compacta it have a lot of leaves pack together.

Horsetails are seedless plants, it is an Vascular plant. It have 15 different species. Horsetails have jointed stems with soft needle leaves. The Horsetails and the Conifers both have needle like leaves. The Horsetails is very much different from the other three. The Horsetails does not have seeds

After this unit I learn a lot. I learn things I thought that I never imagine. I also learn a lot of different names. Some of the name I never even herd of before. I found out the life of an plant, how they reproduce and their daily life. All the plants I saw, now I will look at it in a different way. I will understand what they are suppose to do in this world. I learn that plant have parts, characteristics, and structures. I always thought plant was here to look nice, but they do more then that. Some plants like the Angiosperms give us food like apple, cherry, berries, and many more. Some of the plants like the Conifers, some people use them as refreshing smell. I learn there is more then just being a plant

Bich Ha Tran

I always wonder why there are some plants that can survive without helping from people. The plants struggle with nature to keep their place in the world. However, they still can attract people `s eyes contact by the colorful flowers and their strange characteristics. I can image the conservation process between those plants and the sun. The plants will breath out oxygen to balance the nature if the sun gives them glints. I am more and more interested in plants after learning about Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Anthophyta. Those plants look very different. Now let see about their characteristics.

Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms have dominant sporophyte and are vascular plants but Liverworts have dominant gametophytes and are non vascular plants. Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms also have roots, stems, leaves but Liverworts don't have that kind of characteristics. However, Liverworts have flattened or leafy body that Horsetails, Conifers, Angiosperms don't have. Conifers, Angiosperms are considered as seed plants. Liverworts, Horsetails are considered as seedless plants. Horsetails are special with the jointed stems with soft needlelike leaves at the joints. Conifers have ovules not enclosed by an ovary but Anthophyta have ovules enclosed by an ovary. Liverworts and Horsetails don't have that kind of ovules. Horsetails, Conifers don't have veins on leaves but Anthophyta have veins on leaves. Anthophyta can produce fruits, flowers but Horsetails, Liverworts, Conifers can't. However Conifers can produce cones. Conifers and Horsetails are special with leaves modified as needles or scales. Angiosperms have flat leaves. Conifers, Anthophyta are very diverse group of including trees, shrubs but Horsetails and Liverworts aren't. Horsetails, Conifers, Anthophyta all have green leaves and leafy body of Liverworts is also green.

Plants are so abundant that can help we relax with its fragrance. They contribute a huge colors collection to our world. That makes people lives became lively. Plants are also a oxygen treasure that supply a huge amount of oxygen to humans and animals. I can't image how awful it is when all plants are disappeared. Therefore, we need to preserve the plants by growing them or avoiding destroyed them carelessly.

Angel Xie

In these two weeks we are learning the plant kingdom, it is about different kinds of plants and the plant system. There are different kinds of plants like Liverworts, Horsetails, mosses, ferns, Conifers, and Angiosperms. In different kinds plants, they have their own characteristic, not every plants have the same characteristic. Some plants will have stems, roots, and cones ...but some are not. Some plants are kind like woody.

We are going to compare the four different kinds of plants: Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms. Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms, they all have Dominant gametophytes and leaves. Liverworts, Conifers, and Angiosperms characteristic has leafy body. Horsetails, Conifers, and Angiosperms they all has dominant sporophyte, expect Liverworts. In these four kind plants, Conifers is the one that doesn't have the roots and stems. Angiosperms are the only one that has flowers, seeds or fruit, and ovules (eggs) in closed by an ovary. And Conifers is the only one has cones and leaves modified as needles or scales. Liverworts are the simplest types plants. Conifers are the cones, and it is the stronger wood structure. And Angiosperms is the flower type.

The conclusion for the plant kingdom is all plants have Dominant gametophytes and leaves. Most of the plants has leafy body and Dominant sporophyte. The cones and leaves modified as needles, these will just have in Conifers. Flowers, seeds or fruit, and ovules in closed by and ovary, these will just have in Angiosperms type. So we can always find the dominant gametophytes, leafy body, roots, stems, and leaves on any plants, that we can see on our daily life.

Calvin Yao

After learning much about the animal kingdom, our biology lessons have moved on to the next one, which is the plant kingdom. In this unit, I have learnt different things from plants and other important lessons of what we are focusing on. This unit's main purpose is to observe and describe the structures and characteristics of the plants, also be able to identify the characteristics and know which kind of the plant is. Plants are divided into two main groups, non-vascular and vascular. Non-vascular plants don't have stems, leaves, and roots. But all vascular plants do have stems, leaves and roots. One of the nonvascular plants is Liverworts, and some vascular plants includes Horsetails, Conifers, and flowering plants called Angiosperms. Each of these plants has its own structures and characteristics which differs than the others. Besides from just learning about vascular and non-vascular plants, we have also discussed about the plants' life cycle, diploid (2n) and haploid (n).

Liverworts, one of the kinds of plants from the non-vascular group, are the simplest plants. It's a small plant that has a dominant gametophyte, and its flattened body does not have vascular tissue, stomata, cuticle, roots, stems, and leaves. Also this type of plant is divided into about six thousands of species. Unlike the vascular plants, Liverworts are lack of stems, roots, and leaves, but it does have a dominant gametophyte which some vascular plants also have.

Horsetails are plants from the vascular group; it has an independent, small gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte. Horsetails does not produce seeds, but it does have roots, and stems that are ribbed and jointed. Leaves are grown at the joints of the stem, and they are soft and looked like needles. This type of plant is divided into only fifteen species, which is considered much more less comparing to other plants.

Coniferophyta, also known as Conifers, are a kind of vascular plants. They are seed plants that have tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules not enclosed by an ovary. It also produces cones, and have leaves that looked like needles or scales. Its seeds have a well protective outer coating, its cone has gametophyte and the tree has sporophyte. Conifers are divided into 550 species which aren't as complex as other plants. Its leaves are similar to the leaves of the Horsetails, but are different from other plants, that's why it makes this kind of leaves unique.

Angiosperms, known as the group of the flowering plants, are also seed plants with tiny gametophytes, and a large sporophyte just like the Conifers. But unlike the Conifers, it does have ovules that are enclosed by an ovary. Angiosperms are divided into 250,000 species, which is a very diverse and complex group. It also has trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs that produce flowers and fruits.

Plants are evolved with a special pattern of development in their life cycles. The zygote is often the only diploid (2n) cell, and it undergoes meiosis immediately after fertilization (zygotic meiosis) to form haploid (n) cells. Plants developed a life cycle in which a multicellular haploid individual that produces gametes, the gametophyte, alternates with a multicellular diploid individual that produces spores, the sporophyte. The pattern on life cycles in which a haploid individual alternates with a diploid individual is called alternation of generations.

By looking back into this unit, although it was not as long as the animal kingdom, but I have personally experienced and learnt different things from this unit than the other. From lessons about the plant Kingdom, I had gained my knowledge about plants and know more facts far more than what I used to know. Also I believe that these things I learnt will be valuable and important for the physics major that I want to be in when I got into college, and that, can really affect my future. From the labs and lessons of this unit, I learnt more about the features, characteristics, and structures of the plants. I'm going to continue do well and do my nest in the following units, because I think that the knowledge of biology is very important.

Peter Yee

There are four basic divisions in the plant kingdom. Each division has its own way of life. The four basic divisions are called Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and angiosperm. Each of these divisions will have its own type of plant formation. For instance. Some plants might be big, while some small. Some might be tall, and some short. It also depends on where the plant is growing. Whether it's in a hot place or a cold place.

Out of the divisions of plants. There is a division called the Liverworts. Liverworts are known to be a nonvascular plant. A nonvascular plant is a plant with out veins in them. Meaning they don't have different types of conditions. Also they don't have that much ability to produce or even have the power to transfer water, and its food. Liverworts are one of the simplest plants. They are small, and have dominant gametophytes. Liverworts have flat leaves. Their body structure lacks vascular tissue, roots, stems, stomata, and leaves. In the world there are 6,000 known species of Liverworts. Ranging from the U.S.A. to Africa.

Horsetails are nonvascular plants also. They are also small with flat dominant gametophytes. Gametophytes are a plant that produces more gametes. Horsetails are plants that are seedless. It has a dominant sporophyte, which consist of ribs, roots and jointed stems. Horsetails have a unique type of leaf. Their leaves are needles like, which is pointy. Just like a Horsetails. A Horsetails has hair, which is sort of hard, and thick. There are 15 species of Horsetails in the world, maybe even more.

Conifers have a large body. Conifers look like a Christmas tree, which is tall, and shaped like a triangle. There are 550 different species of Conifers that we know of. Conifers have Gymnosperms they are seeded plants with small gametophytes, and a large saprophyte. Conifers produce cones, basically they are produce from the evergreen tree and shrubs. Trees basically with needle like leaves. Conifers are nonvascular plants. They have gametophytes. In topical areas you will see lots of Conifers. Beneath a Conifer tree what you would see are hard shaped cones or round things. That's how you would know if its a Conifer tree or not.

Angiosperms are flowers. In the world there are 250,000 species of flowers. Flowers have seeds in them. They have tiny gametophytes, and a large saprophyte. Flowers are also nonvascular plants. There is a diverse population of flowers out there. The Anthophyta include trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs, which produce flowers, and fruit plants. The most popular flower I think is the rose, because most people give roses to their love ones to say they cherish them. Roses are red in color. They are one of the most beautiful types of flowers out there.

Hypogynous flowers have a superior ovary. The hypogynous flowers have more unit One Pistil. Tine perigynous flower also has a superior ovary, but it is different that a hypogynous flower because of its shape and size. The epigynous flower has an inferior ovary. It has an inferior ovary because it has a different way of growing, and in color. Epigynous grows at different parts of the world. During cool and warm seasons, just about anywhere you can think of.

The body plan of a plant is that it consists of a stigma, which are the things in flowers that look like antennas. The sepals which protect the pistils. Ovaries are the stems that carry the stamens. The stem is the main part of the plant without the stem; the plant can't stay up. Receptacles are at the center of the flower. That's where pollen gets stored. Flower's use bee's, bird, and anything that eats nectar to pollen them. Without bee's, bird a plant can't reproduce or grow properly.

Now lets go back to talking about the different divisions of plants, and compare, contrast them. Liverworts, Conifers, Horsetails, and Anthophyta are all nonvascular plants. They don't have veins. They all differ in size. Conifers are very big. Compared to Liverworts, which are very small. Conifers produce cones. Conifers don't have a leafy body, but they have needle like leaves. Flowers are small to compare to Conifers. Flowers blood during the spring, and die out during the winter. Horsetails have needle like leaves just as the Conifers. Conifers have tiny gametophytes, and Horsetails have a dominant saprophyte.

What is the same about these plants? All plants can reproduce. They don't lay eggs like birds, but bees and birds carry their seeds around. Its like they can communicate with each other without talking. Its like the plants feed them, while they are spreading the plants. I notice that all nonvascular plants have a stem. The stem is what keeps up the plant. Leafs are like what collects food for the plants. When water hits the leafs. They store food for them. Once the leaves fall off, plants lose that source of energy.

In conclusion we know that nonvascular plants have no veins. They also have very dominant gametophytes. Horsetails, Conifers, Angiosperms, and Liverworts grow at different types of places depending on the weather, and the area. Conifers are tall, and are trees. Liverworts are small, and have a leafy body. Horsetails have a needle like leaf. While Angiosperms are flowers. With pistils in them. Of all the divisions of these plants I think that the most interesting division of plants will have to be the flowers. Flowers have a scent in them, which smells sort of nice. I want to learn how does a flower build up a good smell. Where is this smell from? And why is there a scent in them. Is the smell there to attract?

Peter Yee Revision 1

There are four basic divisions in the plant kingdom. Each division has its own way of life. The four basic divisions are called Liverworts, Horsetails, Conifers, and angiosperm. Each of these divisions will have its own type of plant formation. For instance. Some plants might be big, while some small. Some might be tall, and some short. It also depends on where the plant is growing. Whether it's in a hot place or a cold place.

Out of the divisions of plants. There is a division called the Liverworts. Liverworts are known to be a nonvascular plant. A nonvascular plant is a plant with out veins in them. Meaning they don't have different types of conditions. Also they don't have that much ability to produce or even have the power to transfer water, and its food. Liverworts are one of the simplest plants. They are small, and have dominant gametophytes. Liverworts have flat leaves. Their body structure lacks vascular tissue, roots, stems, stomata, and leaves. In the world there are 6,000 known species of liverworts. Ranging from the U.S.A. to Africa.

Horsetails are vascular plants . They are also small with flat dominant gametophytes. Gametophytes are a plant that produces more gameletes. Horsetails are plants that are seedless. It has a dominant sporotophyte, which consist of ribs, roots and jointed stems. Horsetails have a unique type of leaf. Their leaves are needles like, which is pointy. Just like a horsetail. A horsetail has hair, which is sort of hard, and thick. There are 15 species of horsetails in the world, Maybe even more.

Conifers have a large body. Conifers look like a Christmas tree, which is tall, and shaped like a triangle. There are 550 different species of Conifers that we know of. Conifers have gymnosperms they are seeded plants with small gametophytes, and a large saprophyte. Conifers produce cones, basically they are produce from the evergreen tree and shrubs. Trees basically with needle like leaves. Conifers are vascular plants. They have gametophytes. IN topical areas you will see lots of Conifers. Beneath a Conifer tree what you would see are hard shaped cones or round things. That's how you would know if its a Conifer tree or not.

Angiosperms are flowers. IN the world there are 250,000 species of flowers. Flowers have seeds in them. They have tiny gametophytes, and a large saprophyte. Flowers are also nonvascular plants. There is a diverse population of flowers out there. The Anthophyta include trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs, which produce flowers, and fruit plants. The most popular flower I think is the rose, because most people give roses to their love ones to say they cherish them. Roses are red in color. They are one of the most beautiful types of flowers out there.

Hypogynous flowers have a superior ovary. The Hypogynous flowers have more that one pistil. The perigynous flower also has a superior ovary, but it is different that a Hypogynous flower because of its shape and size. The epigynous flower has an inferior ovary. It has an inferior ovary because it has a different way of growing, and in color. Epigynous grows at different parts of the world. During cool and warm seasons, Just about anywhere you can think of.

The body plan of a plant is that it consists of a stigma, which are the things in flowers that look like antennas. The sepals which protect the pistils. Ovaries are the stems that carry the stamens. The stem is the main part of the plant without the stem; the plant can't stay up. Receptacles are at the center of the flower. That's where pollen gets stored. Flowers's use bee's, bird, and anything that eats nectar to pollen them. Without bee's, bird a plant can't reproduce or grow properly.

Now lets go back to talking about the different divisions of plants, and compare, contrast them. Liverworts, Conifers, Horsetails, and Anthophyta are all nonvascular, and vascular plants. They don't have veins. They all differ in size. Conifers are very big. Compared to Liverworts, which are very small. Conifers produce cones. Conifers don't have a leafy body, but they have needle like leaved. Flowers are small to compare to Conifers. Flowers blood during the spring, and die out during the winter. Horsetails have needle like leaves just as the Conifers. Conifers have tiny gametophytes, and horsetails have a dominant saprophyte.

What is the same about these plants? All plants can reproduce. They don't lay eggs like birds, but bees and birds carry their seeds around. Its like they can communicate with each other without talking. Its like the plants feed them, while they are spreading the plants. I notice that all nonvascular plants have a stem. The stem is what keeps up the plant. Leafs are like what collects food for the plants. When water hits the leafs. They store food for them. Once the leaves fall off, Plants lose that source of energy.

In conclusion we know that nonvascular plants have no veins. They also have very dominant gametophytes. Horsetails, Conifers, Angiosperms, and liverworts grow at different types of places depending on the weather, and the area. Conifers are tall, and are trees. Liverworts are small, and have a leafy body. Horsetails have a needle like leaf. While angiosperms are flowers. With pistils in them. Of all the divisions of these plants I think that the most interesting division of plants will have to be the flowers. Flowers have a scent in them, which smells sort of nice. I want to learn how does a flower build up a good smell. Where is this smell from? And why is there a scent in them. Is the smell there to attract?

Danny Yu

There are a lot of different kind of plants, some plant are big, small, think, think, huge, wide, tall and short. The plants that we looked at in class are the Liverworts, the Horsetails, Conifers and Angiosperms. All of the plants have something in common and something different with each plant. Some plants have spore, dermal, ground tissue, vascular tissue and gametophytes. All the plants' stem has a dermal, ground tissue and vascular tissue. All plants need photosynthesis to grow.

Horsetails and Liverworts are both small plants. They are like other plants, which have roots, and a stem, leafs. Horsetails do not have seed, they have an independent gametophytes and a very good sporophyte. Their stems are jointed and they have soft leaves that look like a needle and have vascular tissue and ground tissue like other plants. They are not like Liverworts that have a very good gametophytes and a have a leafy body.

Liverworts have very good gametophytes and a leafy body. Liverworts do not have strong vascular tissue but they do have a ground tissue and a dermal unlike other plants. Liverworts are like other plants, which have leaf, roots, and a stem. They and the Horsetails both have ground tissue. But the Liverworts have a more dominant gametophyte than the Conifers do. Most plant doesn't have a very dominant gametophyte like the Liverworts.

Conifers have tiny gametophytes and they are Gymnosperms. They are like evergreen trees that produce cones. They have a better vascular tissue than Liverworts. But the Liverworts have a better dermal than the Conifers. Liverworts and Angiosperms have stem, roots, leaf and a aged gametophyte, vascular tissue, ground tissue and a dermal like other plants. Angiosperms have flowers and they produce fruits. Other plant can't produce anything, unlike conifer and Angiosperms.

Angiosperms have a stem, leaf, and roots like other plants but they have and a very good sporophyte and they have a good gametophyte. Horsetails and Angiosperms both have a good gametophyte. But the Horsetails has a better sporophyte. Horsetails have no seeds while Angiosperms have seeds and can grow fruit. Conifers and Angiosperms both can produce things. Conifers are a gymnosperm and have a good gametophyte, while the Angiosperms have a very good gametophyte. Conifers are mostly evergreens and they grow cones, while Angiosperms produce fruits. Not many plants can produce fruit or anything else.

Danny Yu Revision 1

There are a lot of different kind of plants, some plant are big, small, think, think, huge, wide, tall and short. The plants that we looked at in class are the liverworts, the horsetail, conifers and angiosperms. All of the plants have something in common and something different with each plant. Some plants have spore, dermal, ground tissue, vascular tissue and gametophytes. All the plants' stem has a dermal, ground tissue and vascular tissue. All plants need photosynthesis to grow.

Horsetails are also called the Sphenophyta. There are 15 different species of horsetail. Horsetail do not have seed, but they have an independent gametophytes and a very good sporophyte that have roots, ribbed and jointed stems with soft needlelike leaves at the joint and have vascular tissue and ground tissue. Horsetails and liverworts are both small plants. They are like other plants, which have roots, and a stem, leafs. They are not like liverworts that have a very good gametophytes and a have a leafy body. They and confers, angiosperms have a gametophytes and a sporophyte. But the confers and the angiosperms sporophyte are not dominant but they are large.

Liverworts are also called Hepatophyta and are simple plant. There are about 6,000 species of liverworts. Liverworts have very good gametophytes and a leafy body. Liverworts do not have vascular tissue but they do have a ground tissue and a dermal unlike other plants. Liverworts are like other plants, which have leaf, roots, and a stem. They and the horsetail both have ground tissue. Liverworts have a more dominant gametophyte than the conifers and the angiosperms that have little gametophytes. They are different than the horsetails which they have pistils over the ovary while the horsetail have their pistils under the ovary.

Conifers are also called Coniferophyta and there is 550 species. Conifers have tiny gametophytes and they are gymnosperms. They are like evergreen trees that produce cones which is like horsetail and angiosperms that have tiny gametophytes and a large sporophtyes. They have a better vascular tissue than liverworts. But the liverworts have a better dermal than the conifers. Liverworts and angiosperms have a stem, roots, leaf and a good gametophyte, vascular tissue, ground tissue and a dermal like other plants. Angiosperms have flowers and they produce fruits. Other plant can't produce anything, unlike conifer and angiosperms.

Angiosperms are called anthophyta and have 250,000 species. Angiosperms have a stem, leaf, and roots like other plants but they have and a very good sporophyte and they have a good gametophyte. Horsetails and angiosperms both have a good gametophyte. But the horsetail has a better sporophyte. Horsetails have no seeds while angiosperms have seeds and can grow fruit. Conifers and angiosperms both can produce things. Conifers are a gymnosperm and have a good gametophyte, while the angiosperm have a very good gametophyte. Conifers are mostly evergreens and they grow cones, while angiosperms produce fruits. Not many plants can produce fruit or anything else

Pei Xian Yu

In this week we have a lab to do. That's about plants. I learn a lots of things from this lab. It's very special. In this lab have six groups. They are Liverworts, Horsetails, Mosses, Ferns, Conifers and Angiosperms. They are the different kind of plants. So we can learn more about plants.

The first group is Liverworts. Liverwort is the simplest plants. They are the small plants. Its having a dominant gametophytes with a growing leafy. The leafy body that lack vascular tissue. a cuticle, stomata, roots, stems, and leaves. Liverwort's cuticle is very beautiful. The stomata are clear, the roots are long and immature. The stems and leave are very small

The second group is Horsetails. Horsetails is a plant's name, it grown like a horse tail, so people make the name is Horsetails. It is a small and seedless plant and independent gametophytes and a dominant sporophyte consisting of root, ribbed and stem. I think the ribbed is to protect their body. The stem is a jointed stem with a soft needlelike leaves at the joints. This one has many thing different than the Liverwort plant.

Next one is Mosses. Mosses is a mall plat also, Mosses has one thing is same with the Liverworts. They both have the simple vascular tissue. Also it have a sporophyte consisting of a bare stalk and a sport capsule, and a dominant. So it grown very leafy green gametophytes that lacks roots, stems, and leaves. The leaves is very green and slip. So when you walk on the Mosses you have to walk very carefully, if you no walk carefully you'll easy fall dawn.

This one is Ferns. It is a small and seedless plant. Ferns and Horsetails both are have independent gametophytes and a dominant sporophyte consisting of root, horizontal stems and leaves called fronds. The spores are produced in clusters of sporangia on a lower surfaces on leaves. So I think Fern's leaves is very special and different than the others.

This one is Conifers. This one is a tree. Conifer is seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules not enclosed by an ovary. That produce cones, mostly evergreen trees and shrubs with leaves modified as needles or scales. Conifer have seed and fruit. Their fruit looks like a flower, but the fruit is tiny and the color is very old. Also the leaves is tiny too.

The last one is Angiosperms. Angiosperms is seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules enclosed by an ovary. The tree is grown very high and old they have fruit, also the fruit can eat. It looks like a very diverse group including tree, shrubs, vines, and herbs that produce flower and fruits. Those tree are called Angiosperms plants

In those group I learn a lot of things. Every different group have their different plants, they live in the different place. But most of plants are have roots, stems, and leaves because root is use to drink water, stem is to keep water inside their body, leaves is to protect their body. In this lab I know plants are have life also, but their life is so short.